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  Course Guides ix – xiv Topic 1: Overview 1  1.1 Software 2 1.2 Software Engineering 3 1.3 Software Process 4 1.4 Software Process Model 4 1.5 Software Engineering Methods 6 1.6 Attributes of Good Software 7 Summary 8 Key Terms 9 Self-Assessment 1 9 Self-Assessment 2 9 References 9 Topic 2: Software Processes 10  2.1 Software Process Models 11 2.1.1 The Waterfall Model 12 2.1.2 Evolutionary Development 13 2.1.3 Formal Systems Development 15 2.1.4 Reuse-oriented Development 17 2.2 Process Iteration 18 2.2.1 Incremental Development 20 2.2.2 Spiral Development 19 2.3 Software Specification 21 2.4 Software Design and Implementation 23 2.4.1 Design Methods 24 2.4.2 Programming and Debugging 25 2.5 Software Validation 26 2.6 Software Evolution 28 Summary 29 Key Terms 30 Self-Assessment 1 30 Self-Assessment 2 31 References 31 Topic 3: Software Prototyping 32  3.1 Software Prototype 33 3.2 Prototyping in the Software Process 35 3.2.1 Evolutionary Prototyping 36 3.2.2 Throw-away Prototyping 39 3.3 Rapid Prototyping Techniques 40 Table of Contents  iv      TABLE OF ONTENTS  3.3.1 Dynamic High-level Language Development 40 3.3.2 Database Programming 42 3.3.3 Component Reuse 43 3.4 User Interface Prototyping 44 Summary 45 Key Term 45 Self-Assessment 1 45 Self-Assessment 2 46 References 46  Topic 4: Software Project Management 47  4.1 Tracking Progress 48 4.1.1 Work Breakdown Structure 49 4.1.2 Estimating Completion 52 4.1.3 Project Tracking Tools 53 4.2 Project Personnel 57 4.2.1 Project Organisation 58 4.3 Risk Management 59 4.3.1 Identifying Risk 59 4.3.2 Assessing Risk 60 4.3.3 Responding to Risk 61 Summary 63 Key Terms 63 Self-Assessment 1 64 Self-Assessment 2 64 References 64 Topic 5: Software Requirements 65  5.1 System Requirements 66 5.2 Functional, Non-functional and Domain Requirements 68 5.2.1 Functional Requirements 68 5.2.2 Non-functional Requirements 69 5.2.3 Domain Requirements 72 5.3 User Requirements 73 5.4 System Requirements 74 5.4.1 Structured Language Specifications 76 5.4.2 Requirements Specification Using a PDL 76 5.4.3 Interface Specification 77 5.5 The Software Requirements Document 78 Summary 82 Key Terms 83 Self-Assessment 1 83 Self-Assessment 2 83 References 83   TABLE OF ONTENTS t   v Topic 6: Requirements Engineering Processes 84  6.1 Feasibility Studies 84 6.2 Requirements Elicitation and Analysis 87 6.2.1 Scenarios 89 6.2.2 Ethnography 93 6.3 Requirements Validation 94 6.3.1 Requirements Reviews 96 6.4 Requirements Management 97 6.4.1 Requirements Change Management 98 Summary 99 Key Terms 100 Self-Assessment 1 100 Self-Assessment 2 100 References 100 Topic 7: User Interface Design 101  7.1 Graphical User Interface 102 7.2 User Interface Design Principles 104 7.3 User Interaction 108 7.4 Information Presentation 111 7.4.1 Colour in Interface Design 113 7.5 User Support 114 7.5.1 Error Messages 115 7.5.2 Help System Design 116 7.5.3 User Documentation 118 7.6 Interface Evaluation 120 Summary 121 Key Terms 121 Self-Assessment 1 122 Self-Assessment 2 122 References 122 Topic 8: Design with Reuse 123  8.1 Software Reuse 124 8.2 Component-based Development 127 8.2.1 Application Frameworks 130 8.2.2 COTS Product Reuse 132 8.2.3 Component Development for Reuse 133 8.3 Design Patterns 134 Summary 135 Key Terms 136 Self-Assessment 1 136 Self-Assessment 2 136 References 137  vi      TABLE OF ONTENTS Topic 9: Verification and Validation 138 9.1 Software Verification and Validation 139 9.2 Verification and Validation Planning 141 9.3 Software Inspections 143 9.3.1 Programs Inspection 144 9.4 Automated Static Analysis 148 9.5 Cleanroom Software Development 150 Summary 154 Key Terms 154 Self-Assessment 1 155 Self-Assessment 2 155 References 155 Topic 10: Software Testing 156  10.1 Defect Testing 157 10.1.1 Black-box Testing 158 10.1.2 Equivalent Partitioning 159 10.1.3 Structural Testing 162 10.1.4 Path Testing 163 10.2 Integration Testing 167 10.2.1 Top-down and Bottom-up Testing 167 10.2.2 Interface Testing 169 10.2.3 Stress Testing 171 10.3 Testing Workbenches 172 Summary 175 Key Terms 175 Self-Assessment 1 176 Self-Assessment 2 176 References 176 Topic 11: Process Improvement and Software Quality Assurance 177  11.1 Process Improvement 178 11.2 Process and Product Quality 181 11.3 Process Analysis and Modelling 182 11.3.1 Process Exceptions 185 11.4 Process Measurement 185 11.5 The SEI Process Capability Maturity Model 188 11.5.1 Capability Assessment 191 11.5.2 Six Sigma for Software Engineering 192 11.5.3 The ISO 9000 Quality Standards 193 11.6 Process Classification 194 Summary 196
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