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International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2163 Volume 1 Issue 8 (September 2014) www.ijirae.com _________________________________________________________________________________________________ © 2014, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved
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    International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2163   Volume 1 Issue 8 (September 2014 )   www.ijirae.com _________________________________________________________________________________________________ © 2014, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved Page - 99 6 LoWPAN: Efficient Routing Discovery Process for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Muhammad Shoaib Khan  Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, University of Bridgeport, CT, USA  Abstract— This paper introduces efficient routing discovery process based on 6LoWPAN for wireless sensor  networks. This approach is performed in the link layer in order to route the data frame through intermediate sensor  nodes without processing the headers in the upper layers. As a result, the routing cost is reduced and the routing efficiency is improved. Further, in the approach, a source node creates multiple separate routing paths using routing  discovery process. When one routing path fails, another routing path is randomly selected to work without routing  discovery process. This approach also uses the routing path repair algorithm that helps the intermediate node to  determine, if the next hop is inaccessible, then it repairs the corresponding routing path to guarantee that the data are  correctly routed to the destination node. The performance parameters of the proposed scheme are analysed. The  simulation results demonstrate that this approach can decrease the routing cost and curtail the routing delay efficiently.  Keywords— 6LoWPAN wireless sensor networks, link layer, multi-path, routing, sensor node. I.   I NTRODUCTION   Wireless Sensor networks are considered as one of the hot research areas in current years [1], [2]. WSNs comprise of a large number of sensor nodes with limited energy constraints that collect the data from interested domain and process to specific domains [3]. With the widespread wireless sensor network applications and the rapid development of the next-generation Internet, 6LoWPAN has become an expected trend in the future [4]. Now-a-days, the only basic framework for 6LoWPAN is defined in [5], [6] but the routing protocols for 6LoWPAN still need to address for further research [7], [8]. The single-path routing scheme for 6LoWPAN 1  based on ad hoc on-demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) is  proposed in [9]. In this approach, the cumulative routing costs are adopted as the weights of establishing the best routing  path. Moreover, the routing discovery is performed by broadcasting Route Request (RREQ) packets. Thus, a lot of network resources are consumed. The routing scheme based on location information is introduced in [10]. The network is divided into multiple grids based on location coordinates. Each node’s address includes its location coordinate. When one node wants to communicate with another node, it launches the routing establishment process according to the location coordinate of the destination node. The solution for integrating networks and fixed IP networks is introduced in [11]. The solution handles the mobility of vehicles based on street layout as well as the distance between vehicles and fixed base stations. The routing scheme based on clusters is proposed that adopts the hierarchical address structure to achieve the hierarchical routing [12]. The routing establishment and implementation are discussed in detail. However, this scheme does not obtain the routing repair. The multi-path routing scheme for 6LoWPAN is discussed in [13] that helps the source node to establish the multiple routing paths reaching to the destination node and then ranks the multiple routing paths according to the link cost. The routing path with the minimum link cost is considered as the primary path. If the primary path fails, then the source node chooses another optimal routing path as the primary path to continue routing the data. The 6LoWPAN routing scheme is  proposed based on the multi-way tree. In the scheme, maximum number of the child nodes are defined [14]. When the number of child nodes in the multi-way tree is saturated, some nodes are unable to join the multi-way tree due to the lack of the address resources. The source node establishes the routing path reaching the destination node through building the multi-way tree but the scheme is unable to perform the routing path repair. In addition, maintaining the multi-way tree topology consumes a lot of network resources. Therefore, this paper introduces the multiple-path routing approach for 6LoWPAN WSN, and involves the following contributions. a.   The routing scheme is performed in the link layer to improve the intermediate.  b.   The source node maintain the multiple separate routing paths during one routing discovery process. When one routing path fails, another routing path is randomly selected to work without routing discovery process. c.   The routing path repair algorithm is used to help the intermediate node to detect the next hop node whether it is reachable or unreachable, then it repairs the corresponding routing path to ensure that the data are the correctly routed to the destination node. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: In Section II, we present proposed 1  6LoWPAN: Acronym of IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks and it is srcinated from the idea that the smallest devices with low-  power and limited processing abilities should contribute in the Internet of things.    International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2163   Volume 1 Issue 8 (September 2014 )   www.ijirae.com _________________________________________________________________________________________________ © 2014, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved Page - 100 architecture of 6LoWPAN WSNs. In section III, we discuss the simulation setup and performance analysis and section IV, concludes the paper. II.   P ROPOSED A RCHITECTURE OF 6L O WPAN   WSN S   The link protocol of 6LoWPAN WSN adopts IEEE 802.15.4 [15] that divides nodes into full-function nodes with routing function and reduced-function nodes without routing function. In order to achieve the full integration of 6LoWPAN WSN and the IPv6 Internet, this approach divides 6LoWPAN WSN into multiple clusters. Each cluster contains a cluster head that is a full-function sensor node and multiple cluster members which are reduced-function sensor nodes. Therefore, 6LoWPAN WSN includes three types of nodes: an access node, a cluster head and a non-cluster head nodes. An access node is a cluster head, which connects 6LoWPAN WSN to the IPv6 Internet, as depicted in Figure 1. In this architecture, an access node or a cluster head is used to forward data and is equal to a router in the IPv6 Internet, and a cluster member is used to collect data for monitoring and is equal to a host in the IPv6 Internet. An access node, a cluster head and non-cluster head nodes are all stationary nodes. Figure 1: Proposed working protocol for 6 LoWPAN WSNs A.   Proposed structure for IPv6 address According to the features of 6LoWPAN WSN, the hierarchical IPv6 address structure for 6LoWPAN WSN is  proposed and given in Table-I. TABLE-I: IPv6 address structure for 6LoWPAN WSN Global Routing Prefix (Bits) Sensor node ID Cluster head ID (Bits) Non-Cluster head ID (Bits) 112 8 8 In Table-I, an IPv6 address includes two parts. The first part is global routing prefix, and the global routing prefixes of all nodes in one 6LoWPAN WSN. The second part is sensor node ID which is made up of cluster head ID and non-cluster head node ID. Cluster head ID uniquely identifies a cluster in one 6LoWPAN WSN, and a cluster head’s cluster head ID is its initial ID that is unique in 6LoWPAN WSN. The cluster head IDs of all cluster members in one cluster are the same, and the value is equivalent to the cluster head ID of the cluster head in the same cluster. Cluster member ID uniquely identifies a cluster member in one cluster, and a cluster member’s cluster member ID is its initial ID that is unique in 6LoWPAN WSN. In this approach, the cluster member ID of an access node or a cluster head is 0. The use of Sensor node ID as link address involves the gains for example in one cluster, the cluster head IDs of all cluster members are the same, so a cluster member’s link address can show its cluster head’s link address. Based on this hierarchical address structure, the routing algorithm can be achieved. That is, multiple separate routing paths from the source cluster head to the destination cluster head can be established. Further, the cluster member ID of a cluster head is zero, so the valid length of a cluster head’s link address is compressed. As a result, the routing cost and delay are reduced.    International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2163   Volume 1 Issue 8 (September 2014 )   www.ijirae.com _________________________________________________________________________________________________ © 2014, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved Page - 101 B.   The cluster generation After a full-function sensor node starts, it marks itself as a cluster head, sets the initial ID as its cluster head ID, and  periodically broadcasts a beacon frame to show its existence [12]. If a reduced-function node ‘A’ receives a beacon frame from a cluster head node ‘J’, then it checks whether it is marked as non-cluster head node. If ‘A’ is non-cluster head node, then it discards the beacon frame. Otherwise, ‘A’ marks itself as a non-cluster head node, and combines J’s cluster head node ID with its initial ID to produce its sensor node ID. In Table-II, we give the routing and temporary routing entry. TABLE-II: Showing Routing and temporary routing entry Routing entry Number of Bits Temporary routing entry Number of Bits Destination link address 8 Bits Destination link address 8 Bits Next-hop link address 8 Bits Source link address 8 Bits Routing cost 8 Bits Previous hop link address 8 Bits Lifetime 8 Bits Routing cost address 8 Bits C.   Routing discovery frame This approach develops two types of IEEE802.15.4 command frames, including routing query frame and routing response frame that are given in Table-III and IV. In Table-III, the frame control indicates that this frame is a control frame and the sequence number identifies the control frame. The destination address is the broadcasting address 0xffff, and the source address is the sensor node ID of the cluster head forwarding this frame. The command frame identifier is 0x0a that indicates that this frame is a routing query frame. The final address is the cluster head ID of the destination cluster head, and the srcinator address is the cluster head ID of the source cluster head. The source cost is the hops from the source cluster head to the cluster head forwarding this frame. TABLE-III: Routing Query Frame Frame size Sequence Destination Source Command Final Originator Source Frame 16 Bits 8 Bits 16 Bits 16 Bits 8 Bits 8 Bits 8 Bits 8 Bits 16 Bits TABLE-IV: Routing Response Frame MAC Header MAC payload MAC footer Frame control Sequence number Destination address Source address Command Frame identifier Final address Originator address Destination address Frame check sequence 16 Bits 8 Bits 16 Bits 16 Bits 8 Bits 8 Bits 8 Bits 8 Bits 16 Bits D.   Routing formation If a source non-cluster head node ‘A’ communicates with the destination non-cluster head node ‘B’ whose cluster head is ‘K’, then ‘A’ first sends the data frames to its cluster head node ‘J’. If the routing entry of ‘J’ is reaching to ‘K’, then ‘J’ sends the data frames to the next hop. Otherwise, ‘J’ formulate the routing path reaching to ‘K’ based on the following  process: i.   Final address is K’s cluster head node ID, the srcinator address is J’s cluster head ID, and the source cost is 0. ii.   If ‘K’ receives the routing query frame, then it goes to step vi. Otherwise, it goes to step iii. iii.   If the intermediate cluster head node receiving this frame has a routing entry reaching to ‘K’, then it returns to ‘J’ a routing response frame where the destination link address is the source link address in the routing query frame and the cost is the routing cost in the corresponding routing entry, and goes to step vii. Otherwise, it goes to step iv.    International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2163   Volume 1 Issue 8 (September 2014 )   www.ijirae.com _________________________________________________________________________________________________ © 2014, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved Page - 102 iv.   The intermediate cluster head node increases the cost in the routing query frame + 1. If the intermediate cluster head node has not a routing entry where the source link address is ‘J’ and the destination link address is’ K’ in the temporary routing table, then it adds into its temporary routing table a new routing entry where the previous-hop link address is the source link address and the routing cost is the cost in the routing query frame, and then  broadcasts the routing query frame and goes to step ii. Otherwise, it goes to step v. v.   If the source cost in the routing query frame is less than the routing cost in the routing entry, then the intermediate cluster head node updates the routing cost in the temporary routing entry with the cost in the routing query frame, the previous-hop link address with the source link address in the routing query frame,  broadcasts the routing query frame and goes to step ii. vi.   ‘K’ returns a routing response frame the nodes that forward the routing query frames. In a routing response frame, the destination cost is 0, the final address is the final address in the corresponding routing query frame and the srcinator address is the srcinator address in the corresponding routing query frame. vii.   The intermediate cluster head receiving the response frame increases the cost in the routing response frame + 1, and adds into its routing table a routing entry where the destination link address is the final address, the next-hop link address is the source link address, and the routing cost is the destination cost in the routing response frame. If the intermediate cluster head node is ‘J’, then it goes to step viii. Otherwise, the intermediate cluster head updates the destination address in the routing response frame with the previous-hop link address in the corresponding routing entry, forwards the response frame and deletes the corresponding entry from its temporary table, and goes to step vii. viii.   The multiple separate routing paths from ‘J’ to ‘K’ are established successfully, as shown in Figure 2. After multiple separate routing paths from the source cluster head to the destination cluster head are established, the source cluster head randomly selects one routing path from multiple routing paths to perform the communication with the destination cluster head. Therefore, the load balance is achieved. Figure 2: Showing complete multi-hop routing formation process for 6 LoWPAN Wireless Sensor Networks

13.SPME10086

Jul 23, 2017

18.SPEC10082

Jul 23, 2017
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