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2013-5-54--P-Investigation of the Resistance to Pile Loop Nbsp;Extraction of Linen and Ramie Fabrics- P- (2)

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Investigation of the resistance to pile loop extraction
  Petrulyte S, Dapsauskaite D, Velickiene A, Petrulis D. Investigation of the Resistance to Pile Loop Extraction of Linen and Ramie Fabrics. FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe   2013; 21, 5(101): 54-58. 54 Investigation of the Resistance to Pile Loop Extraction of Linen and Ramie Fabrics Salvinija Petrulyte,Dalia Dapsauskaite,Asta Velickiene,Donatas Petrulis Kaunas University of Technology, Studentu 56, LT-51424 Kaunas, LithuaniaE-mail.:, Abstract The paper presents an investigation of the resistance to pile loop extraction of terry fabrics in relation to the pile height, impacts/nishing, and weft density. Terry fabrics analysed in the experimental work were made from linen/cotton or ramie/cotton yarns. The pile height of the fabrics was 6 and 12 mm, and the weft density varied from 80 to 200 dm -1 . The sam -  ples were affected by impacts or nishing operations. Grey fabrics were also investigated.  Analysing a 10 mm pulling distance, the highest resistance to pile loop extraction of grey terry fabrics (1064.2 mN) was determined for linen/cotton fabric with a 6 mm loop pile.  It was found that an increase in the weft density of ramie/cotton terry fabrics from 80 to 160 dm -1  led to an increase in the resistance to pile loop extraction for all pulling distances investigated but with a different intensity: for a 5 mm pulling distance the difference was 3.2 times, and for a 25 mm pulling distance it was in 2.1 times. The decrease in the resist  - ance to pile loop extraction of 18.6 - 38.0% of industrially nished and tumbled linen/ cotton fabrics compared with grey ones was determined at a 10 mm pulling distance. The changes in the resistance to pile loop extraction in relation to the tumbling period were not  statistically signicant. Key words:    nishing, extraction resistance, pile loop, terry fabric. fabrics in relation to knitting parameters is also presented [10]. An investigation on the dimensional  properties of plain knitted fabric pro-duced from cotton yarn and subjected to different relaxation treatments is per-formed in [11]. The aim of this research was to characterise the internal energy of knitted fabric by using the yarn pullout test method in an ultrasonic relaxation state. Since the nature of internal friction-al force is related to yarn interaction at crossing points, the yarn pullout test was a very effective way to examine woven fabric properties [12]. It was determined that the nature of the internal frictional force is mainly related to yarn interaction at warp and weft crossing points. Besides this, the effect of nishing treatments was investigated here. The stick-slip  properties of para-aramid woven fabrics were investigated in [13]. The research in [14] concerns the estimation of use prop-erties of terry woven fabrics destined for towels and made with cotton, cotton-ax ability and recoverability of the fabric. Yarn pullout can be an important energy absorption mechanism during the bal-listic impact of woven Kevlar fabric [5].Measurements of the tuft-withdrawal force in machine-made and hand-knotted carpets were performed in [6]. The re-sults show that the tuft-withdrawal force varies with the type and complexity of the knot and, in particular, with the total angle at which a tuft is wrapped around the warp threads. In [7] a new approach to measuring changes in thread interac-tion at the crossing points due to the fab-ric structure and yarn irregularity is dis-cussed. A high correlation between the warp-pullout force (static and dynamic), the intensity of thread interaction at the crossing points, the strength of the fabric in the warp direction, and the weft-yarn irregularity was observed. In [8] a theory to characterise the single-bre pullout  behaviour of bonded brous systems is  presented.It is evident that the yarn pullout test is a suitable method for investigating the internal mechanical properties of fabric structure performed during weaving or knitting process [9]. The study presents a theoretical model to estimate the stored energy of plain-knitted fabrics which is determined using yarn pullout. This model is based on the knitted fabric di-mensional properties, i.e. stitch length and contact angle of yarns, using force  balance analysis. Investigation of me-chanical properties like tensile, shear, compression of plain jersey weft knitted n  Introduction The yarn-pullout behaviour of a woven 100% polyester bre lament plain- weave fabric is an important indicator of the mechanism of yarn interactions with-in the fabric [1]. Paper [2] considers the inuence of fabric side tension in the sin -gle yarn pullout test and associated micro displacements when a single yarn is pro-gressively pulled from a weave. The side tension force per yarn was varied from near zero to values approximately one-half of the value required to completely  pull the transverse yarn from the fabric. It was found [3] that the yarn-pullout force in a fabric depends on the geom-etry thereof, as well as on the fabric treat- ment type of yarn and bre. The cationic softening agent also has an effect on the  processes involved in pulling out a single warp yarn from a plain weave cotton fab-ric [4]. This treatment reduces the yarn tensile “modulus” in the weave, the inter yarn adhesion, and the inter yarn sliding friction, as well as increasing the deform- Figure 1. Terry fabric xture on the tensile testing instrument ZWICK/Z005.  55 FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe 2013, Vol. 21, No. 5(101) of the water during macerating was 20 ± 2 °C. Method of investigation The resistance to pile loop extraction (F) was measured according to EN 15598:2008 [18] using a computerised tensile testing machine ZWICK/Z005. The testing parameters were as follows: sample size – (120 ± 5) mm × (25 ± 2) mm, and speed of the moving clamp - 100 mm/min. The resistance to pile loop extraction was obtained from the record-ed graph at the point where the pulling distance (distance between jaws)  z   was 5 - 25 mm. The terry samples were condi-tioned for 24 hours before being tested. Testing was carried out under standard atmosphere conditions of 20 ± 2 °C and 65 ± 4% relative humidity. Figure 1   shows the xture of the sample and pile loop pullout test carried out in the testing instrument. n  Results and discussion In this work, the resistance to pile loop extraction of terry woven fabrics in relation to fabric raw material, struc- ture, and impacts/nishing is discussed. or cotton-hemp pile. The friction coef -cient of terry fabric determines the fab-ric’s smoothness or roughness.As is widely known, linen, which is a natural bast bre, has unique properties such as a feel of freshness, it is very hy- gienic, and has magnicent brilliance. With the trend of fashion towards natural and comfortable fabrics, linen and blend-ed fabrics have gained prestige. Ramie bre [15] is classied chemically as cel -lulosic, just like cotton, linen, etc. There are ramie advantages: Natural lignocel- lulosic bres can be used as a substitute to ax and silk; it is resistant to bacteria, mildew, and insect attack, is extremely absorbent, dyes fairly easy, increases in strength when wet, withstands high wa-ter temperatures during laundering, has a smooth lustrous appearance improves with washing, keeps its shape and does not shrink, can be bleached and dyed. On the other hand, there are disadvantages too: low elasticity, lacks resilience, low abrasion resistance, wrinkles easily, is stiff and brittle.Among all textile products, woven fab-rics are probably the most used. Terry fabrics have a unique structure which consists of 3 systems of yarns interlaced with each other to form a construction of certain quality. The loop architecture is an essential feature of terry fabric and affects more or less all the fabric prop-erties. Therefore the fabric structure and  pile warp interaction with other yarns can be used as indicators of various fab-ric properties. Moreover such an inter-action can also be investigated through the resistance to pile loop extraction of terry fabric. Studying the phenomenon of yarn pullout is an important step toward understanding the fabric’s structure and  properties as well as toward engineering new qualities of textiles. In spite of the relevance to the usability, aesthetic fea-tures, and quality of terry materials, no information is available on the resistance to pile loop extraction in terry fabrics and factors causing it. Hence this paper  presents an experimental investigation of this new and unexplored area. n  Experimental Object of investigation Terry fabrics were woven using linen/cotton and ramie/cotton yarns with pile loops on both sides. The research was  performed with grey terry fabrics as well as with fabrics affected by differ- ent impacts or nishing operations. Grey fabric samples (see Table 1 ) of linen/cot-ton (A6, A12 variants) and ramie/cotton (R(I)6 - R(V)6 variants) were prepared specially for this research in a mill under commercial production conditions. Then the grey linen/cotton fabrics were treated as stated below: n  grey fabric → macerating; n  grey fabric → washing in water → for 10 (or 30, or 120) min → centrifuging; n  grey fabric → industrial washing with detergent for 60 min → softening for 60 min → centrifuging → tumbling for 30 min → drying in air; → tumbling for 60 min → drying in air (if necessary);→ tumbling for 90 (or 120, or 150) min.Our experiments were carried out with 25 variants of terry fabric of 7 structures. The samples were prepared according to ISO 6330:2000 [16] and Methodology of J.S.C. “A Grupė” (Jonava, Lithuania) [17]. The macerating procedure lasted for 2 - 3 seconds, necessary for the complete wetting of the sample. The temperature Table 1.  Details of terry fabric samples. Fabric variantLinen/cottonRamie/cotton A6A12R(I)6R(II)6R(III)6R(IV)6R(V)6    C   h  a  r  a  c   t  e  r   i  s   t   i  c Fabric density, dm -1 Pile and ground warp, S m 250Weft,S a 20080100120140160Yarn linear density, texPile warp68, unbleached linen yarn67, ramieGround warp25 × 2, plied cotton yarnGround weft50, cotton yarnPile height, mm612 6 Figure 2. Stick-slip character of pile loop pullout force-pulling distance curve of R(V)6 variant.  FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe 2013, Vol. 21, No. 5(101) 56 Loop pile yarn pullout tests were car  -ried out on the fabric samples investi-gated. Regression analysis was made using a Microsoft Excel Analysis Tool Pack. Factorial designs were made. The informativity of the experiment was  proved using the criterion of R. A. Fisher. In order to describe the results for which the informativity of experiment was  proved by mathematical equations, the linear type of regression was analysed. When we observe the cells in the stick-slip stages of the pile loop pullout force- pulling distance curve in Figure 2 , there is a function which has periodic decreases and increases. When the maximum pull- out force display was nished, the rst decreasing stage passed. Such a pullout  phenomenon has a repeating character. The resistance to pile loop extraction of grey terry fabrics is presented in Table 2  and Figure 3 . Analysing grey linen/cot-ton fabrics, it was determined that the re-sistance to pile loop extraction depends on the pile height. When analysing the 5 - 25 mm pulling distance, the resist-ance to pile loop extraction of variant A6 varied from 507.5 to 1641.7 mN, whereas analysing variant A12, this in-dex changed in the 632.7 - 1966.4 mN interval. Besides this it was found that the changes in  F   were not statistically signicant for the majority of values of the pulling distances examined.As was determined by the author of [13], the stick-slip force and accumulative retraction force depend on fabric den-sity. The stick-slip force and accumula-tive retraction force in dense fabric in single- and multiple-yarn pullout tests were higher than those of loose fabric. We also found the evident inuence of weft density on the resistance to pile loop extraction analysing the results of grey ramie/cotton terry fabrics. The increase in  F   is strongly conditioned by that of the weft density of terry fabrics from 80 to 160 dm -1 for all pulling distances (see Table 2  and Figure 3.a ). The terry fabric of 80 dm -1  weft density (R(I)6 variant) had the lowest resistance to pile loop extraction of all the variants: 151.7 mN (  z   = 5 mm) – 810.8 mN (  z   = 25 mm). The resistance to pile loop extraction of the fabrics of 160 dm -1 weft density (R(V)6 variant) varied from 481.7 mN (  z   = 5 mm) to 1728.3 mN (  z   = 25 mm). Besides this, the consistent decrease in  power of the weft density was deter-mined: with an increase in S  a  the resist-ance to pile loop extraction for  z   = 5, 10, 15, 20 & 25 mm increased 3.2, 2.5, 2.4, 2.2 & 2.1 times, respectively. Authors analysing pile carpets in [6] conrm that differences in the static withdrawal force can be attributed to the increased angle of the wrap of pile yarn around the warp thread and to the number of times the  pile passes through the backing fabric. A semi-empirical model [5] is also present-ed for predicting the yarn pullout force and energy as a function of the pullout distance for Kevlar fabrics. Our ex- perimental results of  F   in relation to the  pulling distance are described by linear equations. The determination coefcient R  2 = 0.9095 - 0.9967 (see Figure 3.a ) in-dicated the existence of an excellent rela-tion between the parameters investigated. Besides this, the comparative analysis of grey A6, A12 and R(II)6 variants showed that variation in the resistance to pile loop extraction was related to fabric struc-ture and raw material. It was found that the values of  F   for R(II)6 fabric variant ( S  a = 100 dm -1 ) are 2.0 - 3.1 and 1.9 - 3.0 times lower compared with these indi-ces determined for variants A6 and A12 ( S  a = 200 dm -1 ), respectively. Macerating is a very passive procedure and has only a water impact on the fab-ric. From the data presented in Table 3  and Figure 3.b , it can be seen that after the macerating impact, the changes in resistance to pile loop extraction mainly are not statistically signicant compared with grey fabrics. A linear relationship (R  2 = 0.9898) was observed between the resistance to pile loop extraction and the pulling distance for variant A6 (see Figure 3.b ). It was found that F changed from 538.8 mN (  z = 5 mm) to 1975.0 mN (  z = 25 mm) for the macerated A6 vari-ant and from 667.1 mN (  z = 5 mm) to 1317.1 mN (  z = 25 mm) for the macer-ated A12 variant. Washing with water as well as a com- plex of factors like water, heat, abra-sion, etc. impacted the structure of the fabric much more than the macerating  procedure. Results of investigation of fabrics that were washed in water are  presented in Table 3  and Figure 3.c . Analysis of fabrics washed in water for 30 min showed that the resistance to pile loop extraction was higher for the fabric with a lower loop pile (6 mm) compared with that with a higher loop pile (12 m); however, only in some cases were these changes statistically signicant. The highest resistance to pile loop extrac-tion for  z = 25 mm was determined for the fabrics washed in water for 30 min: 2518.3 mN for variant A6 and 1960.8 Table 2.  Results of investigation of grey terry fabrics; F– resistance to pile loop ex- traction, ∆ – absolute error of F. Fabric variantPulling distanceResistance to pile loop extraction F, mN ∆, mN R(I)6 5  151.727.3 10  328.327.7 15  485.044.8 20  618.359.5 25  810.898.3R(II)6 5  212.533.3 10  342.540.4 15  535.842.8 20  673.350.6 25  822.566.6R(III)6 5  229.222.6 10  402.558.6 15  561.760.4 20  708.374.4 25  900.0117.1R(IV)6 5  261.725.1 10  503.361.5 15  708.373.6 20  993.353.7 25  1321.7159.1R(V)6 5  481.753.5 10  813.345.4 15  1171.768.4 20  1341.7107.1 25  1728.3154.0 Table 3.  Results of investigation of terry  fabrics macerated or washed in water; F– resistance to pile loop extraction, ∆ – abso - lute error of F. Fabric variantImpact/ fnishing Pulling distanceResistance to pile loop extraction F, mN ∆, mN  A12    M  a  c  e  r  a   t  e   d 5  667.1171.4 10  771.4118.9 15  1014.3188.6 20  1150.0114.7 25  1317.1249.0 A6    W  a  s   h  e   d   i  n  w  a   t  e  r   f  o  r   3   0  m   i  n 5  708.292.9 10  1370.0134.4 15  1698.3248.2 20  2141.8223.9 25  2518.3385.1 A12 5  675.089.4 10  856.7121.5 15  1585.8271.3 20  1800.8220.9 25  1960.893.1    W  a  s   h  e   d   i  n  w  a   t  e  r   f  o  r   1   2   0  m   i  n 5  516.0100.2 10  698.7138.9 15  1139.3274.1 20  1321.3304.8 25  1501.3306.3  57 FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe 2013, Vol. 21, No. 5(101) mN for variant A12. The  F   of the fab-rics after 120 min of the washing pro-cedure decreased by 24.0 and 35.4% for variant A6 and by 18.4 and 23.7% for variant A12 for pulling distances 5 and 25 mm compared with grey fabrics. The  proven informativity of experiments of industrially washed, softened and then tumbled A6 and A12 fabrics is presented in Table 4 ; other results are presented in Figures 3.c, 4 (see page 58). Washing with detergent, softening and then the tumbling procedure changed the fabric’s structure because during the industrial washing cycle the fabric is affected by washing and softening solutions, as well as by the mechanical impact, heat and water. Consequently the spaces between loops and yarns changed - the loop be- came bulky and the fabric became uffy. Since such intensive nishing removes most of the surface bres and protrud - ing bres of the pile loop are mainly removed due to mechanical action, it is demonstrated that these operations also cause resistance to pile loop extraction. It was found that there is a tendency of  F    to decrease for industrially nished and tumbled terry fabrics compared with grey ones. Furthermore, analysing fab-rics A6 and A12, which were industrial- ly nished and tumbled for 30 - 150 min, the increase in  F   was 2.5 - 3.9 times and 1.9 - 2.7 times, respectively, when  z = 5 - 25 mm. Experimental work [3] veries the connections between fabric proper-ties and yarn pullout behaviour: for dif-ferent fabric weave structures and yarn types, yarn pullout behaviours are also different. We found an irregular change in the resistance of pile loop extraction from 698.2 mN (tumbling lasted for 90 min) to 866.4 mN (tumbling lasted for 30 min) for variant A6 and a 10 mm  pulling distance. Whereas for variant A12 and a 10 mm pulling distance, it was determined that  F   increased from 468.2 mN (tumbling lasted for 30 min) to 517.3 mN (tumbling lasted for 90 min) and then decreased (tumbling last-ed for 120 - 150 min). Moreover it was found that the changes in  F   in relation to the tumbling period were not statisti- cally signicant, while the relationships showed that the resistance to pile loop extraction in relation to the pulling dis-tance had a linear character for variant A6 tumbled for 60 and 120 min as well as for variant A12 tumbled for 150 min (R  2 = 0.9163 - 0.9576, see Figure 3.d  ). A6 (10 min) y = 62.758x + 376.55R  2  = 0.9169 A12 (10 min) y = 40.96x + 588R  2  = 0.8572 A6 (120 min) y = 33.83x + 211.69R  2  = 0.996805001000150020002500051015202530z, mm    F ,  m   N A6 (10min)A12 (10 min)A6 (120 min) A6 (60 min) y = 38.244x + 240.22R  2  = 0.9174 A6 (120 min) y = 38.29x + 301.83R  2  = 0.9163 A12 (150 min) y = 33.924x + 189.52R  2  = 0.95760200400600800100012001400051015202530z, mm    F ,  m   N A6 (60min)A6 (120 min)A12 (150 min) A12 y = 74.676x + 182.6R  2  = 0.9095 A6 y = 54.568x + 386.64R  2  = 0.9238 R(II)6 y = 31.016x + 52.08R  2  = 0.996705001000150020002500051015202530z, mm    F ,  m   N A6 A12 RII(6)  y = 75.548x + 129.96R  2 = 0.989805001000150020002500051015202530z, mm    F ,  m   N A6 Table 4.  Proved informativity of experi - ments of F of industrially nished and tumbled variants A6 and A12. Fabric variantTumbling period, minF criterionCalculated F c Tabular F T  A6602.882.611206.403.48 A121505.043.48 Figure 3.  Resistance to pile loop extraction of: a) grey fabrics of A6, A12, R(II)6 variants, b) macerated fabrics of variant A6, c) washed in water of fabrics of variants A6 and A12 and d) industrially nished and tumbled A6 and A12 variants. a)b)c)d)
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