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A Combination Trial of Vaccines Plus Ipilimumab in Metastatic CRPC - Immune Correlates - 2014

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combination trial of vaccine with ipi
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   1 3 Cancer Immunol Immunother (2014) 63:407–418DOI 10.1007/s00262-014-1524-0 ORIGINAL ARTICLE A combination trial of vaccine plus ipilimumab in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients: immune correlates Caroline Jochems · Jo A. Tucker · Kwong-Yok Tsang · Ravi A. Madan · William L. Dahut · David J. Liewehr · Seth M. Steinberg · James L. Gulley · Jeffrey Schlom Received: 14 November 2013 / Accepted: 27 January 2014 / Published online: 11 February 2014 © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside the USA) 2014 given immune cell subset 70 days post-initiation of therapy, were evaluated. The median OS was 2.63 years (1.77–3.45). There were trends toward associations for longer OS and cer-tain immune cell subsets before immunotherapy: lower PD-1 + Tim-3 NEG CD4 EM  ( P   =  0.005, adjusted P   =  0.010), higher PD-1 NEG Tim-3 + CD8 ( P   =  0.002, adjusted P   =  0.004), and a higher number of CTLA-4 NEG  Tregs ( P   =  0.005, adjusted P   =  0.010). We also found that an increase in Tim-3 +  natu-ral killer cells post- versus pre-vaccination associated with longer OS ( P   =  0.0074, adjusted P   =  0.015). These results should be considered as hypothesis generating and should be further evaluated in larger immunotherapy trials. Keywords  Ipilimumab · Vaccine · PROSTVAC · T cells · NK cells · Immunotherapy Abbreviations ALC Absolute lymphocyte countCTLA-4 Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4DT Doubling timeEM Effector memoryGM-CSF Granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factorICOS Inducible costimulatorIFN InterferonIL InterleukinmCRPC Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancerMDSC Myeloid-derived suppressor cellNK Natural killerOS Overall survivalPAP Prostatic acid phosphatasePBMC Peripheral blood mononuclear cellPD-1 Programmed death 1 receptorPSA Prostate-specific antigenPSMA Prostate-specific membrane antigen Abstract  We recently reported the clinical results of a Phase I trial combining ipilimumab with a vaccine containing transgenes for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and for a triad of costimulatory molecules (PROSTVAC) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Thirty patients were treated with escalating ipilimumab and a fixed dose of vaccine. Of 24 chemotherapy-naïve patients, 58 % had a PSA decline. Combination therapy did not exacerbate the immune-related adverse events associated with ipilimumab. Here, we present updated survival data and an evaluation of 36 immune cell subsets pre- and post-therapy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected before therapy, at 13 days and at 70 days post-initiation of therapy, and phe-notyped by flow cytometry for the subsets of T cells, regu-latory T cells, natural killer cells, and myeloid-derived sup-pressor cells. Associations between overall survival (OS) and immune cell subsets prior to treatment, and the change in a James L. Gulley and Jeffrey Schlom have contributed equally to this study.C. Jochems · J. A. Tucker · K.-Y. Tsang · R. A. Madan · J. L. Gulley · J. Schlom ( * ) Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Room 8B09, Bethesda, MD 20892, USAe-mail: js141c@nih.govR. A. Madan · W. L. Dahut · J. L. Gulley Medical Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USAD. J. Liewehr · S. M. Steinberg Biostatistics and Data Management Section, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA  408Cancer Immunol Immunother (2014) 63:407–418  1 3 TIM-3 T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing molecule-3Tregs Regulatory T cellsTRICOM Triad of costimulatory molecules (ICAM-1, B7.1, and LFA-3) Introduction Two immunotherapeutic agents for cancer have recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA): sipuleucel-T for prostate cancer and ipilimumab for metastatic melanoma. Sipuleucel-T (PROVENGE ® , Den-dreon Corp.) is a therapeutic vaccine generated by the iso-lation of the patient’s peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and culturing them in vitro with a fusion protein of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and granulocyte–mac-rophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The product is then reinfused into the patient. The Phase III IMPACT trial showed a 4.1-month improvement in overall survival (OS) and a 22 % relative reduction in risk of death, and it was approved for use in prostate cancer in 2010 [1].Another vaccine, designated as PROSTVAC, has shown evidence of clinical activity in metastatic prostate cancer in two Phase II trials [2, 3], and a Phase III trial is cur- rently ongoing (NCT01322490 [4]). PROSTVAC (PSA–TRICOM, Bavarian Nordic, Inc.) consists of a prime–boost regimen with recombinant vaccinia (prime) and fowlpox (boost) vectors, containing transgenes for prostate-spe-cific antigen (PSA) and three costimulatory molecules for cytotoxic T lymphocytes (B7.1, ICAM-1, and LFA-3, designated TRICOM) [5]. A multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled Phase II study showed an 8.5-month improvement in overall survival and a 44 % reduction in death rate compared to placebo in patients with asympto-matic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) [2]. The median OS was 25.1 months for vaccinated patients ( n   =  82) versus 16.6 months for controls ( n   =  40). In a second Phase II single-arm trial in mCRPC at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the median survival was 26.6 months ( n   =  32) [3]. A retrospective analysis of this trial evaluated patients based on the Halabi nomogram [6] and found that patients with a more indolent disease (predicted survival >18 months) displayed greater improvements in survival than patients with more aggressive disease. PROSTVAC vaccination was also shown to generate an antigen-specific immune response [3]. In addition, it was shown that patients who had a decrease in the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) +  regulatory T-cell (Treg) population post-vaccination displayed longer overall survival [7].Ipilimumab (Yervoy ® , Bristol-Myers Squibb) is a fully human monoclonal antibody that targets CTLA-4. It is the first in a new class of agents called immune checkpoint inhibitors. It has been extensively studied in metastatic melanoma and has shown an improvement of overall sur-vival of 2–4 months compared to active control groups, which led to FDA approval [8, 9]. Ipilimumab has also previously been investigated for the treatment for pros-tate cancer in a pilot trial of patients with hormone-refrac-tory prostate cancer [10]. They found a PSA decline of ≥ 50 % in 2/14 patients and concluded that further inves-tigations were warranted. Ipilimumab alone or in combina-tion with radiotherapy was also investigated in a recently reported Phase I/II trial of 75 patients with mCRPC [11]. Both PSA decline and tumor response were observed, and 8/34 patients in the 10 mg/kg ±  radiotherapy group had a confirmed PSA decline of ≥ 50 %. Of these, six had received prior chemotherapy and two were chemotherapy-naïve. One of the tumor-evaluable patients in the 10 mg/ kg ±  radiotherapy group achieved a confirmed complete response, and 2 patients achieved an unconfirmed partial response. Six patients had stable disease. The median OS was 17.4 months [11].In the PSA–TRICOM trials, no adverse events above grade 1 or 2 toxicity and no evidence of autoimmunity were observed. In the ipilimumab trials, there were some severe adverse events involving autoimmunity, including colitis, panhypophysitis, adrenal insufficiency, raised ami-notransferases, and neutropenia. Since PSA–TRICOM has three costimulatory molecules designed to enhance T-cell immunity, and the ipilimumab checkpoint inhibitor is designed to reduce the immune suppressive CTLA-4 entity, it was important to determine whether the combination of PSA–TRICOM and ipilimumab would exacerbate the auto-immunity seen with ipilimumab alone.We have recently reported [12] the clinical results of a Phase I study combining ipilimumab with PSA–TRICOM vaccine in patients with mCRPC. Thirty patients were treated with an escalating dose of ipilimumab and a fixed dose of vaccine. Of the 24 chemotherapy-naïve patients, 14 patients (58 %) had a PSA decline from baseline, with six of these ≥ 50 %. Combination therapy did not seem to exac-erbate the immune-related adverse events associated with ipilimumab, and there was no apparent association between immune-related adverse events and clinical outcome. In the present study, we report on updated survival data, which was evaluated in terms of several patient characteristics such as Gleason score and Halabi nomogram. Here, we have also investigated whether any of 36 specific immune cell sub-sets of patients prior to therapy correlate with clinical out-come and whether changes in any of these subsets during therapy correlate with survival. For each of these immune cell subsets, we have analyzed phenotypes based on known immunologic markers, many of which have previously been shown to correlate with biologic activity [7, 13–19].  409Cancer Immunol Immunother (2014) 63:407–418  1 3 Materials and methods PatientsThirty patients with mCRPC were enrolled on a Phase I trial of combination therapy with ipilimumab and PROST-VAC, a poxviral vaccine targeting PSA and contain-ing transgenes for three T-cell costimulatory molecules (NCT00113984) [12, 20]. Recombinant vaccinia PROST- VAC was given as a prime with recombinant fowlpox PROSTVAC given as monthly boosts starting on day 15. GM-CSF was given on 4 consecutive days with each vac-cination. Ipilimumab was given at the dose levels of 1, 3, 5, and 10 mg/kg. Ipilimumab treatment was started after 2 weeks, at the time of the first boost vaccination, and given monthly on the same day as vaccine. Initially, our protocol allowed for only six courses with ipilimumab; however, a protocol amendment gave patients with stable disease the option of additional ipilimumab every 3 months for a maxi-mum of four additional doses. The maintenance dose of monthly vaccine could continue until there was evidence of disease progression on imaging studies, or toxic effects that required discontinuation. All injections were given at the NIH Clinical Center (Bethesda, MD, USA). All patients reviewed and signed an informed consent form approved by the NCI’s Institutional Review Board.Collection of peripheral blood mononuclear cellsPeripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected at base-line, after 13 days and after approximately 70 days of treat-ment. Briefly, 60 ml of blood was collected, and the mono-nuclear fraction was separated by Ficoll–Hypaque density gradient separation, washed three times, and preserved in 90 % heat-inactivated human AB serum (Gemini Bio-Products, W Sacramento, CA, USA) and 10 % DMSO in liquid nitrogen at a concentration of 1 ×  10 7  cells/ml until assayed.Flow cytometryMulti-color flow cytometry analysis was performed on PBMCs from all time points by staining for 30 min at 4 °C with CD3-V450, CD8-FITC or APC, ICOS-PE, HLA- DR-PerCP-Cy5.5, CD25-PE-Cy7, CD45RA-PerCP-Cy5.5, CD62L-FITC, CD127-V450, PD-1-PE, Tim-3-AF700, CD4-APC-Cy7 (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA, USA), CCR7-PE-Cy7 (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA), CTLA-4-FITC (LSBio, Seattle, WA, USA), and FoxP3-APC (eBioscience, San Diego, CA, USA) for T cells. For natural killer (NK) cells, CD3-V450, CD16-APC-Cy7, CD56-PE-Cy7, and Tim-3-AF700 (BD) were used. For myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), CD33-PE, CD11b-APC-Cy7, HLA-DR-PerCP-Cy5.5, CD14-V450, and CD15-APC (BD) were used. 1 ×  10 5  cells were acquired on an LSRII (BD), and data were analyzed using FlowJo software (Tree Star Inc., Ashland, OR, USA). The appropriate isotype controls were used, and dead cells were excluded from the analysis.Induction and analysis of T H 17 cellsT H 17 cells were analyzed using the Human T H 1/T H 17 Phe-notyping kit (BD). Briefly, PBMCs were thawed and incu-bated overnight at 37 °C. 1 ×  10 6  cells/ml were stimulated for 5 h with PMA/Ionomycin in the presence of Golgi-Stop (Leukocyte Activation Cocktail with BD GolgiPlug, BD). The cells were then fixed, permeabilized, and stained according to the manufacturer’s instructions. CD4-PerCP-Cy5.5, interleukin (IL)-17A-PE, and interferon (IFN) γ -FITC (BD) were used. 1 ×  10 5  cells were acquired on an LSRII (BD), and data were analyzed using FACSDiva soft-ware (BD). The appropriate isotype controls were used, and dead cells were excluded from the analysis.Statistical analysisIn an exploratory manner, an actuarial analysis was per-formed on overall survival using the Kaplan–Meier method. OS was calculated as the period between the on-study date and date of death, or last follow-up. The log-rank test was used to compare strata or test for a trend (where appropri-ate). For both immune cell parameters and clinical param-eters, baseline values were used to create strata for use in the actuarial analysis. For immune cell parameters, the per-cent difference from baseline (day 70–day 0) data was also used to create strata. The cutoffs were selected post hoc. Based upon the number of subjects available, the data were divided in tertiles to perform an exploratory evaluation of the association between the parameters and OS. For those parameters in which the log-rank P  < 0.10, adjacent strata were combined and the two new strata with the smallest P  value were used (in which case the log-rank test P  value was adjusted for the implicit number of tests performed). Subsequently, a Cox proportional hazards regression analy-sis was performed on the data. The initial regression model included parameters from the actuarial analysis such that the log-rank P  < 0.05. Both stepwise and backward selec-tion processes were performed on the data.Either a parametric or nonparametric analysis was performed on the immunological data, as appropriate. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the data if the ANOVA assumptions were satisfied. A Box–Cox transformation was performed on the data prior to ANOVA, and the data were transformed as appropriate. We also tested for linear and curvilinear  410Cancer Immunol Immunother (2014) 63:407–418  1 3 trends over time using orthogonal polynomial contrasts. Residuals were examined for normality to verify ANOVA assumptions. If ANOVA was not appropriate for the data, we first used Friedman’s test and then used the Wilcoxon signed rank test to make pairwise comparisons between distributions of time periods. For both methods, all three pairwise comparisons were made and the P  values were adjusted using Holm’s method (step down Bonferroni). In view of the very large number of tests performed on the survival and immunological data, we consider P  < 0.005 as being statistically significant, while 0.005 < P  < 0.05 would be considered trends. All reported P  values are two-tailed. Results Overall survival of all 30 patients has been updated from the previous publication [12] and was calculated as the dif-ference between the on-study date and the date of death ( n   =  23), or the date of last follow-up ( n   =  7). Figure 1 shows the Kaplan–Meier plot for overall survival for all patients. The median survival time was 2.63 years (95 % confidence limits 1.77–3.45). Probability of survival (95 % confidence limits) at 1, 2, and 3 years was 0.93 (0.76–0.98), 0.69 (0.49–0.83), and 0.38 (0.21–0.55), respectively.We performed an actuarial analysis of overall survival on the clinical characteristics data. As can be seen in Table 1, there were trends favoring a low Halabi score <117, which corresponds to a Halabi predicted survival of greater than approximately 18 months, a longer PSA-doubling time (DT) at baseline >2.42 months, and a baseline hemoglobin >12.4 g/dl. These results have previously been reported to be prognostic favorable factors [6, 21]. No other clinical variables were found to associate significantly with overall survival.Using seven-color flow cytometry, we have now evalu-ated the subsets of CD4, CD8, NK, Tregs, T H 17 cells, and MDSC at three time points: pre-treatment, day 13 (post-first vaccine and pre-ipilimumab), and day 70 (during vaccine/ipilimumab treatment). For each of these immune cell subsets, we have analyzed phenotypes based on known immunologic markers, some of which have previously been shown to correlate with a specific biologic activity [7, 13– 19]. The description of each of these 36 subsets is given in Table 2. Figure 2 shows the three immune cell subsets that increased during therapy. For the three parameters shown, the differences between baseline (BL) and day 70, and day 13 and day 70, were generally significantly larger than zero, that is, the day 70 values were significantly larger than the baseline and day 13 values. Linear trends tests con-firmed these findings for absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) ( P  < 0.0001) (Fig. 2A), ICOS +  CD4 +  T cells ( P  < 0.0080) (Fig. 2B), and IFN γ +  CD4 +  T cells ( P  < 0.0006) (Fig. 2C). The significance of these immune cell subsets will be further discussed. All other studied immune cell subsets shown in Table 2 did not change significantly from baseline to day 13 or day 70 of treatment, or from day 13 to 70. Analyses of clinical and immune cell subset baseline values were performed, as well as differences from baseline of the immune cell subsets, to evaluate whether any asso-ciation existed with subsequent overall survival (Table 3). PBMCs were not available for flow cytometry analysis for 2 out of the 30 patients, so they were excluded from these comparisons.Actuarial analyses were performed to identify immune cell subsets that were associated with longer OS. Subse-quently, Cox regression analyses were performed on the immune cell subsets showing evidence for being associated Fig. 1 Overall survival. Kaplan–Meier curve for overall survival in years for all patients ( n   =  30), calculated as the difference between the on-study date and the date of death ( n   =  23), or the date of last follow-up ( n   =  7). The median survival time was 2.63 years (95 % confidence limits 1.77–3.45). Probability of survival (95 % confi-dence limits) at 1, 2, and 3 years was 0.93 (0.76–0.98), 0.69 (0.49–0.83), and 0.38 (0.21–0.55), respectively Table 1 Risk analysis for clinical parameters versus overall survivalActuarial analysis results after dichotomizing the data for clinical characteristics showing the log-rank and trend test P  values, as well as the favored group PSA –  DT   prostate-specific antigen-doubling timeLog rankTrendFavoredHalabi score0.0700.063<117Gleason score0.0240.42NoneBaseline PSA0.280.69NoneOff study PSA0.460.61NonePSA–DT (months)0.0230.015>2.42Baseline hemoglobin0.0610.029>12.4
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