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A MANUFACTURING VIEWPOINT Klaus M. Blache, Ph.D., Editor Rachel Subrin Richard Perich Publication Administrators Published by Society of Manufacturing Engineers Publications Development Department One
A MANUFACTURING VIEWPOINT Klaus M. Blache, Ph.D., Editor Rachel Subrin Richard Perich Publication Administrators Published by Society of Manufacturing Engineers Publications Development Department One SME Drive P.O. Box 930 Dearborn, Michigan 48121 A MANUFACTURING VIEWPOINT 1988 Society of Manufacturing Engineers Dearborn, Michigan First Edition First Printing All rights reserved including those of trandation. This book. or parts there of. may not be reproduced in any form or by any means including photocopying. recording, or microfilming or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing of the copyright owners. No liability is assumed by the publisher with respect to the use of information contained herein. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions. Publication of any data in this book does not constitute a recommendation of any patent or proprietary right that may be involved or provide an endorsement of products or services discussed in this book. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: International Standard Book Number: Manufactured in the United States of America The editor believes the information provided in this book is factful and useful. It is however furnished without warranty of any kind from either theauthor/editor, General Motors Corporation, the publisher, or thecontributingauthors. Readers should make their own determination regarding the suitability or completeness of any material or procedure for a specific purpose or situation. This book is dedicated to the people, regardless of job or function or title, who take the risk and responsibility to implement change in support of continuous improvement and the team. Throughout this effort, I have appreciated the understanding and patience from our daughter (Kali), or son (Kai), and wife (Doreen), who's expecting our third child. There's a saying in the automotive business that the real test comes when the rubber hits the road. In manufacturing technology, the real test comes when a new automation tool hits the factory floor. Financial planning spreadsheets may forecast its success with respect to cost improvement. Computer screens may display its potential for quality assurance. But, will the new technology meet its objectives in real-life plant operations? If not, why? This book addresses that question. It compiles the experiences of people responsible for technology implementations within General Motors and a variety of businesses. In each case there were manufacturing process problems to be solved. Technology-based solutions were developed and implemented. Results were measured. Some efforts proved successful, others less so, just as we would expect in any human endeavor. Let me point out that technology, from conception through to implementation, is an intensely human endeavor. For the very reason that technologies are created by and for human beings, human considerations should drive implementation decisions. Thus, we should be asking whether a new technology fits the skills and interests of the people who will be using it. Will it solve one kind of problem without creating another? Does it satisfy human objectives as well as bottom-line obiectives? Based on my years with the world's largest manufacturing organization, and demonstrably industry's strongest proponent, developer, and implementor of technology. I can testify that there are few perfect solutions. We strive to learn from experience. We stress preparedness particularly with respect to the kinds of training and continuous retraining that keep GM flexible, always ready as well as eager to take on new tasks with realistic confidence for success. Further, we recognize that GM's internal technology resources, mighty as they are, have limits. Consequently, we are involving GM suppliers ever more deeply in our development efforts. We strongly encourage them in their own technology programs. We share knowledge with them because this promotes understanding which is requisite to intelligent action. Sharing plant floor experiences with us, Dr. Blache (an accomplished, hands- on production superintendent) directs our attention to a root issue: If state-of-the-art plants do not always perform as planned, does the problem lie in automation technology itself. or in its implementation? In the push for progress do we correctly assess the impact of technologies on operators, service people, supervisors, and management? Do we pay adequate heed to worker participation, training and retraining requirements, learning abilities, work attitudes, and concerns about personal accomplishment, security and dislocation? Do we truly prepare our people to take the next step? Are we specifying levels of automation appropriate to the human side of the technology equation? These are valid questions for the most fundamental of reasons; ultimately, everything depends on human acceptance. This book explores that fact and its implications for a more consistently successful implementation of manufacturing technologies. F. James McL)onald, retired President of General Motors Corporation Technology is constantly evolving. To be successful, today's engineers must keep pace with the torrent of information that appears each day. To meet this need, SME provides. in addition to the publication of books, many opportunities in continuing education for its members. These opportunities include: Monthly meetings through five associations and their more than 300 chapters and 165 student chapters worldwide to provide a forum for membership participation and involvement. Educational programs including seminars, clinics, programmed learning courses, as well as videotapes and films. Conferences and expositions which enable engineers and managers to examine the latest manufacturing concepts and technology. Information on Technology in Manufacturing Engineering database containing technical papers and publication articles in abstracted form. Other databases are accessible through SME. The SME Manufacturing Engineering Certification Institute formally recognizes manufacturing engineers and technologists for their technical expertise and knowledge acquired through experience and education. The Manufacturing Engineering Education Foundation was created by SME to improve productivity through education. The foundation provides financial support for equipment development, laboratory instruction, fellowships, library expansion and research. SME is an international technical society dedicated to advancing scientific knowledge in the field of manufacturing. SME has more than 70,000 members in 70 countries and serves as a forum for engineers and managers to share ideas, information and accomplishments. The society works continuously with organizations such as the American National Standards Institute, the International Organization for Standardimtion, and others, to establish and maintain the highest professional standards. As a leader among professional societies, SME assesses industry trends, then interpretes and disseminates the information. SME members have discovered that their membership broadens their knowledge and experience throughout their careers. The Society of Manufacturing Engineers is truly industry's partner in productivity. In the last decade the drive towards automation has increased rapidly. Currently that movement (or more appropriately, the rate of that trend) is being questioned because state-of-the-art factories in U. S. industries are not performing as well as planned. I believe that much of this is not directly due to automation technology itself, but rather the proper implementation of that technology with the people impacted. In addition to automation technology, it is also due to issues concerning the following: Operators of high technology equipment Repairmen of high technology equipment Employees working next to high technology equipment Supervisors with changed responsibilities due to high technology equipment Employee training and related learning curves Everyone's work attitude and focus. The issues revolve around such necessary preautomation tasks as specifying the proper level of automation with adequate training, achieving and maintaining goal clarity (common focus), and promoting worker participation to successfully implement the new technology. In order to regainlmaintainllead worldwide manufacturing competitiveness, companies must become masters at change. It is critical that each employee understand and believe that they, both individually and collectively, can make a difference. It is these persons and teams, taking risks and making continuous incremental improvements that will shape and determine the future position of their companies. What the Experts Say Invented in Europe, developed in America, made in Japan. Edson De Castro. Manufacturing Systems by Tom Inglesby, Editor (July 1987) Few companies have yet initiated CIM; however, attractive benefits are being realized along the way...benefits that are achieved by going back to the basics of manufacturing. Booz-Allen & Hamilton, Inc., Survey. Production Magazine (May 1987) On mechanical slavery, the slavery of the machine, the future of the world depends. Robert Huber, Editor-in-Chief, Production Magazine (May 1987) Technology is the solution to unemployment in this country, not the cause of unemployment. The Detroit News, quoting a joint study by the Engineering Academy, the National Academy of Sciences, and the Institute of Medicine (18 June 1987) New United Motor Manufacturing Inc., (NUMMI), operated by Toyota, produces high-quality cars despite the use of little leading-edge manufacturing technology. Drew Winter. Ward's Auto World (September 1987) Barriers to implementation generally stem from inadequate planning and poorly defined targets or goals. Prior to implementation, the infrastructure for technology must be in place-people, training and planning-in a dedicated environment culturally positioned to achieve success. Thomas Shijo, Vice-president of Marketing, Ingersoll, Production Magazine (May I98 7) It's not a lack of willingness, it's a lack of roadmap. Edson De Castro, Manufacturing Systems by Tom Ingiesby, Editor (July 1987) Successful organizations tend to concentrate their attention and effort on doing a few things very well...their ability to maintain these priorities depends largely on how successful they are in transmitting the same sense of focus (and understanding of priorities) throughout the organization. Robert H. Hayes and Steven C. Wheelwright, Restoring our Competitive Edge- Competing Through Manufacturing, John Wiley & Sons (1984) Create constancy of purpose for improvement of product and service. W. Edwards Deming, Ph.D.. Out of Crisis, MIT Publishing (1986) ...Many of the failures we have seen in the fields of CAD, MRP and other advanced technologies were directly attributable to the fact that the users had not fitted them into any plan at all. Don Edwaldz, Director ofingersol1 Engineers in CIM Comes Down to Earth at the Advanced Manufacturing Show by Nolan W. Rhea, Associate Editor, Material Handling Engineer (August 1987) Don't automate your problems. Solve the problems using simple techniques and then automate what's left. William G. Stoddard, parmer. Stephen J. Schaus, manager, Arthur Anderson & Co., and Nolan W. Rhea. Associate Editor, Material Handling Engineering, New Guideline for Factory Automation (date unknown) The first rule of CIM is that you can't integrate things that are not automated and you can't automate things that don't work yet manually. Preparation begins with a reexamination of the fundamentals. Nolan W. Rhea, Associate Editor. Material Handling Engineering (August 1987) I agree with your conclusion that where high technology fails, it is most often a failure due to inadequate training of workers, supervision, and management. Robert F. Huber, Editor-in-Chief, Production Magazine, Letter to Klaus M. Blache (21 May 1987) Referring to a future factory effort to manufacture F-6 and possibly other fighter jets... 'Throwing technology at the problem is not the solution,' he contends. 'You can't take a narrow prespective-it's not like building toasters. It is a critical combination of people, processes and processors (machinery). The real key is how you use the people with the machinery.' Robert L. McMahon, Jr.. Manager of Manufacturing Systems, General Dynamics/ Fort Worth, Production Magazine (May 1987) To many people, computer-aided design (CAD) seems to mean a workstation that, in and of itself, can design products. Nonsense....not without someone telling it what to do. Tom Inglesby, Editor, Manufacturing Systems (4 July 1987) People don't accept or resist technology; they accept or resist the way it changes their lives. Barry Spiker, Manager, Management of Change, Industrial Automation Systems Division, Honeywell, and Anita Brazill, Managing Editor, Engineers Digest, in Engineers Digest (April 1987) The more high technology around us, the more the need for human touch. John Naisbitt in Megatrends, Warner Books, (1982) Take away my people but leave my factories and soon grass will grow on the factory floors. Take away my factories but leave my people and soon we will have a new and better factory. Andrew Carnegie, source unknown 'There comes a time when someone has to actually get the job done. Philip B. Crosby, Quality is Free, McGraw-Hill Book Company (1979) What the People Say To sample and assess what people feel about new technology, 22 persons of varying backgrounds (i.e., engineers, food service managers, machine repairmen, bank tellers) were asked three questions. 1. How do you feel (positive or negative) about new technology? 2. Why do you think it succeeds? 3. Why do you think it fails? On the first question. 15 responses were positive, 4 responses were positive with some reservation, and 3 responses were negative. Thus, the general mood towards new technology was favorable. One comment from an engineer (positive response with reservation) can be summarized as: It has to be remembered, that the best technology is not always the newest technology. Sometimes the old way must not be thrown away just for the sake of the new technology. The responses to the second question could be placed into three categories. Why Does New Technology Succeed? Number of Reponses Improves efficiencylmakes job easier 13 Peoplelproper attitudes 5 Designed properly 4 This suggests that new technology succeeds because there is a benefit (through increased improvement), where people have the proper attitude towards new technology, and as a result of a good design. Responses to the third question can be tallied as: Why Does New Technology Fail? People resisting change Too complex Human element neglected (i.e., factory input) Human mistakes Poor planninglsomething overlooked Not enough testing Poor training Misused Number of Repsonses This suggests that there are several reasons (alone or in combination) that could contribute to new technology failing. However, all of the items mentioned are controllable. These respondents do not constitute a statistically significant sample size for further interpretation of the information obtained. What they do represent is an indication of what people, in general, think about new technology. A larger sample may change the ratio of responses between the categories and add to the total types of categories. However, from my experience, I feel that many of the key areas have been identified. About The Book The roadmap to being competitive involves taking what the experts say and combining it with what the people say to formulate an action plan to carry out the following: 1. Perform successful change management. 2. Perform competitive manufacturing; by adding value to raw materials by removing waste and resulting in a product, or by combining two or more elements to create a product with a value greater than the sum of the individual parts. 3. Perform new technology implementation. Why, with this understanding, is it so difficult to get improvement through new technology application even though most people favor it and companies have been attempting to do it for over fifty years? This question, and searching for answers to it, formed the basis for this book. On a broader scale, one can argue that the wealth and power of the United States depends upon the knowledge and control (application) of production/ manufacturing. Societies historically go through stages from an agricultural base, to industrial, then high technology and finally...perhaps a service industry? The successful implementation of new technology is critical in maintaining this country's manufacturing base. A 1987 report on Training for New TechnologyIPart V, Manufacturers and Users: Partners in Learning by the Work in America Institute (a nonprofit work research organization in Scarsdale, New York) states that manufacturers and users of new technology working together in designing and implementing a system can literally spell the difference between success and failure. The study suggests that although no single factor can be pointed out as the cause of slow new technology growth, much of the problem is related to the way manufacturers and users deal, or fail to interact, with each other. As long as design remains something the manufacturer does, and implementation something the user does, a knowledge gap exists and the resurgence of the U.S. economy will be delayed. This weak link of technology transfer (from technology manufacturer to user) should be high on the list of root cause items for which to find permanent and irreversible fixes. Two other items that are also high on my root cause list are: 1. The introduction of new technology changes not only the production1 manufacturing systems, but also the factory social system. 2. Organization complexity (i.e., organizational structure and procedures, proliferation of everything-assembly parts, forms to fill out, job classifications) needs to be controlled. It spreads quietly and quickly, and once situated, it is difficult to reduce. As organizational complexity increases, people's ability to communicate decreases. Continuous improvement should be emphasized, through first getting back to basics-simplify and understand. Then, with understanding, follow with the proper level of new technology (if still required). The book is divided into four chapters: 1. Success Factors 2. Examples and Related Topics 3. Industrial Observations 4. What Does it All Mean? Chapter One presents factors related to implementing successful change technology, with emphasis on manufacturing. Chapter Two offers examples and discussion of technology (change) implementation in several areas such as robotics, computer-integrated manufacturing, process control, computer terminal operations, and human error control. Chapter Three is a historical overview of human factors in automation, including an extensive list of references. This is followed by current industrial observations. by looking at an existing company concluding with a look at future trends. What is learned in all three chapters, recommendations and a model for understanding, are compiled in Chapter Four. Each chapter is preceded by chapter comments which put into perspective the upcoming information. The Introduction, Chapter One, Two, Three and Four Comments, and Chapter Four deliver the book's message. with Chapters One, Two, and Three providing the supporting detail. This book sets the groundwork and provides guiding principles for successfully implementing change. The information is presented from an industrial - manufacturing viewpoint. Khus M. Blache, Ph.D. Chapter One: Success Factors Chapter One Comments The Human Factor in the Factory of the Future by Pe
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