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261 Appraisal in the research genres: An analysis of grant proposals by Argentinean researchers Mariana Pascual Lidia Unger universidad Nacional de San Luis Argentina Abstract: Writing an effective grant proposal poses many challenges for researchers, in particular for those whose native language is not English and who may have received little formal instruction in writing. While considerable research has been undertaken on the genre of the research article, grant proposals have received m
    261 Appraisal in the research genres: An analysis of grant proposals by Argentinean researchers Mariana Pascual Lidia Unger universidad Nacional de San Lis Argentin a Abstract:  Writing an effective grant proposal poses many challenges for researchers, in articlar for those whose native langage is not English and who may have received little formal instruction in writing. While considerable research has been undertaken on the genre of the research article, grant proposals have received much less attention, desite their major signicance in research settings. This stdy aims at investigating how grant proposal writers in the disciplines of chemistry and physics position themselves in relation to other researchers and theorists in key obligatory stages of this genre, namely Benets and Imortance Claim (Connor &   Mauranen, 1999). Two successful and praiseworthy examples from disciplinary areas where access to international funding is regarded as important are analyzed. They were written by Argentinean non-native English seakers working at the universidad Nacional de San Lis. The roosals are analyzed by using the Appraisal framework proposed by Martin (2000) and Martin and White (2005), with a focs on the system of ENGAGEMENT. Reslts indicate that the roosals were highly heteroglossic, and that a variety of ENGAGEMENT resorces were used. The instances were predominantly expansive, suggesting that authors tend to invite rather than challenge their colleagues’ views. This may be interpreted as an attempt to address a potentially varied audience. These results can assist authors in becoming aware of the interpersonal resources they may use to position themselves and align their audiences when writing their grant proposals. Key Words:  Research genres, grant proposal, systemic functional linguistics, appraisal, engagement. Recibido: 15-VII-2008 Aceptado: 25-III-2010 Revista Signos 2010, 43(73)261-280 Correspondencia: Mariana Pascual ( ascalm@nsl.ed.ar ). Centro de Lengas Extran - jeras, universidad Nacional de San Lis. Ejército de los Andes 950, San Lis, Argenti -na.  262   Revista Signos 2010, 43(73) La valoración en géneros cientícos: Un análisis de solicitudes de fondos para investigación de escritores argentinos Resumen:  Los investigadores no nativos del idioma inglés deben enfrentar muchos desafíos al ela-borar sus solicitudes de fondos para investigación, en particular, aquellos que no han recibido una capacitación sistemática en escritura. Los estdios sobre los signicados interersonales en géneros cientícos desde la ersectiva Sistémico-Fncional se han ocado rincialmente del artíclo de investigación. Sin embargo, y a pesar de su importancia en ámbitos académicos, otros géneros   no han atraído tanta atención. Este trabajo indaga acerca de la manera en qe los escritores de solicitdes de fondos   de investigación de las disciplinas de Química y Física se posicionan frente a sus colegas, en las etaas obligatorias de este género: Benecios y Declaración de Imortancia (Connor &   Mauranen, 1999). Se analizan dos solicitudes que cumplieron acabadamente con su objetivo. Fueron escritas or investigadores argentinos hisanohablantes de la universidad Nacional de San Lis, al momento de solicitar nanciamiento de agencias internacionales. El análisis se basó en la teoría de la Valo -ración, según Martin (2000) y Martin y White (2005), focalizándose en el sistema de Involucramiento. Los resultados dan cuenta de textos altamente heteroglósicos y una amplia variedad de recursos de Involcramiento. Las instancias identicadas son redominantemente exansivas, lo cal sgiere qe los atores tienden a invitar, más qe a desaar los osicionamientos de ss colegas. Esto se interretaría como n intento de dirigirse a na adiencia otencialmente variada. Estos resltados pueden ayudar a los investigadores a tomar conciencia de los recursos interpersonales disponibles para posicionarse más efectivamente frente a sus producciones y a sus audiencias. Palabras Clave: Géneros cientícos, solicitd de fondos ara investigación, lingüística sistémico- funcional, valoración, discurso académico. INTRODUCTION Studies of evaluative meanings carried out on research genres have mainly focused on the re-search article (see Hunston, 1993; Hyland, 1998a, 1998b; Martínez, 2001, 2003; Myers, 1989; Salager-Meyer, 1990, 1994, 1997). However, some other genres, such as the grant proposal, have not received mch attention, desite their major signicance in research settings. Writ - ing an effective grant roosal oses many challenges for non-native English seakers (NNESs), esecially for those who have not received mch systematic training in academic and scientic genres. Previous studies on evaluation in grant proposals adopted a pragmatic perspective, providing intuitive interpretations of texts without the support of a meaning-based theory of language. Studies of this kind, such as the ones conducted by Myers (1990, 1991), Johns (1993) and Connor and Mauranen (1999), have offered valuable insights into evaluation. This theoretical ersective seems to lead to some lack of clarity, arising from the denition of discorse as an    263 information or content transmitting vehicle. On the same theoretical lines, ‘hedging’ is con -sidered as a set of resources, which function interpersonally at the grammatical level (Hyland, 2000). Regarding this concept, Hood (2004: 30) claims that there is a need: “to account for the other functions of the text as doing positioning, politeness, arguing or alignment work, and to account for the writer’s construction of the text as a message as somehow outside of discourse proper”. Thus, more comprehensive accounts of language, such as the ones proposed by Systemic Func-tional Linguistics (SFL) (Halliday, 1985, 1994; Martin, 1992; Halliday &   Matthiessen, 2004), may prove particularly valuable to the study of the functioning of language.The present study attempts to explore expressions of interpersonal meaning more systemati-cally, drawing on SFL theory. The metafunctional nature of this theory not only provides a sys-tematic means for differentiating interpersonal meaning from ideational and textual meanings, but also for exploring how they relate to each other. Within SFL, Appraisal offers the theori-zation of interpersonal meaning choices in discourse (see Martin, 2000; Martin &   Rose, 2003, 2007; Hood, 2004; Hood &   Martin, 2005; Martin &   White, 2005). A central concept of Appraisal theory is that speakers of a language use evaluative resources “for negotiating our social rela-tionships, by telling our listeners or readers how we feel about things and people (in a word, what our attitudes are)” (Martin &   Rose, 2003:19). The focus of analysis of this study deals with one of the Appraisal systems outlined by these authors - ENGAGEMENT , which includes “all the resources by which the textual or authorial voice is positioned intersubjectively” (White, 2001:14). Though previous studies have focused on the research genres following the frame-work of Appraisal (see Hood, 2004; Hood &   Martin, 2005), or on the secic system of ENGAGE - MENT bt in other non-academic genres (see Miller, 2004), to or knowledge, no research has been condcted sing grant roosals written by NNESs. This stdy aims at investigating sccessfl grant roosals rodced by Argentinean NNESs working at the universidad Nacional de San Lis (uNSL) in the discilines of Chemistry and Physics, in order to examine how they position themselves in relation to other researchers and theorists in key obligatory stages of this genre, namely Benets   (B) and Importance Claim (IC). The notion of ‘successful’ is here interpreted in terms of effectiveness, i.e. of the accomplish-ment of the social purpose of grant proposals, regardless of considerations as to the ‘quality’ of the discourse produced. Results are expected to throw some light on researchers’ writing practices and thus promote their linguistic awareness of the interpersonal resources they may use when writing. In keeping with these concepts, it is hoped that their written productions and their interaction with other members of the scientic commnity are ltimately imroved. Araisal in the research genres: An analysis of grant roosals by Argentinean researchers / pascal, M. and unger, L.  264   Revista Signos 2010, 43(73) 1. Research genres: The grant proposal Research on academic written discourse (Swales, 1990, 1996; Hyland, 1998a, 1998b, 2000, 2004; Connor &   Mauranen, 1999) has mainly focused on the most popular academic genres, such as the research article and the abstract. Nevertheless, some valuable contributions have been reported to the study of the grant proposal genre by Myers (1990, 1991), Johns (1993), Connor and Maranen (1999), and ponticelli, pascal and unger (2005). According to Connor and Mauranen (1999), grant proposals represent a type of persuasive writ-ing whose communicative purpose is to convince reviewers and funding agencies to provide them with the fnds they reqire to carry ot their research activities. Following Swales’ de - nition of move (1990), these athors identify ten rhetorical moves, namely Territory, Ga, Goal, Means, Reorting previos Research, Achievements, Benets, Cometence Claim, Imortance Claim and Compliance Claim . Within these identiable fnctional nits, they conclded that the following moves -or stages- were secic to the genre: Achievements, Benets, Imortance Claim and Comliance Claim. The rst two refer to the roses of the research - whether they contribute to the research or outside world, respectively. Like in the previous moves, Importance Claim   seeks to emphasize the positive aspects of the work but it is not in a strict relationshi to the reslts. The last secial move -Comliance Claim- seems to be secic to Eroean union rograms. It addresses the reqirements and goals of articlar Eroean fnd - ing agencies. Therefore, the two stages selected for analysis in this stdy are Benets (B) and Importance Claim (IC), which are regarded as highly persuasive (Connor &   Mauranen, 1999).Although the studies carried out by Connor and Mauranen (1999) provide a valuable descrip-tion of grant proposals, the limitations imposed by the pragmatic type of analysis make them inadequate for a meaning-based study of interpersonal resources such as the one we report in this work. In consequence, the move analysis presented above is only regarded here as a descritive starting oint. Or stdy eminently draws on the SFL framework, which rovides efcient analytical and interretative tools. Ths, dearting from Connor and Maranen’s as -sumption and with the assistance of the SFL tools, we attempt to discover how authors construe their persuasive stances in texts, and provide an evaluation of persuasion by exploring how they manage to do so. Writing is an act of persuasion, and the lexico-grammatical choices used for constructing dis-course and, in particular, for constructing stance or position, have unquestionable effects on the act of communication that may be most evidently observed in these stages of the genre. Pragmatic scholars who have studied interpersonal meanings, such as Hyland (1998a, 1998b) and Salager-Meyer (1990, 1997), identify position through metadiscourse instances and thus
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