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Abbas-Basic-Immunology-3e.doc

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Abbas: Basic Immunology, 3 rd Updated Edition Chapter 01: Introduction to the Immune System est Ban! U#I$#E C%&ICE 1. The principal function of the immune system is: A. Defense against cancer B. Repair of injured tissues C. Defense against microbial infections D. Preention of inflammatory diseases !. Protection against enironmental to ins A'S: C The immune system has eoled in the setting of selectie pressures imposed by microbial infections. Although immune responses to cancer may occur# the
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  Abbas: Basic Immunology, 3 rd  Updated Edition Chapter 01: Introduction to the Immune Systemest Ban!  U#I$#E C%&ICE 1.The principal function of the immune system is:A.Defense against cancer B.Repair of injured tissuesC.Defense against microbial infectionsD.Preention of inflammatory diseases!.Protection against enironmental to ins A'S: C The immune system has eoled in the setting of selectie pressures imposed by microbial infections. Although immune responses to cancer may occur# the concept that $immunosureillance% against cancer is a principal function of the immune system is controersial. Repair of injured tissues may be a secondary conse&uence of the immune responses and inflammation. Although the immune system has regulatory features that are needed to preent e cessie inflammation# preention of inflammatory diseases is not a  primary function. The immune system can protect against microbial to ins# but it generallydoes not offer protection against to ins of nonbiologic srcin.'.(hich of the follo)ing infectious diseases )as preented by the first successful accination*A.PolioB.TuberculosisC.+mallpo D.Tetanus!.Rubella A'S: C ,n 1-/# !d)ard 0enner reported the first intentional successful accination# )hich )as against smallpo in a boy# using material from the co)po pustules of a milmaid. ,n 1/2# smallpo )as reported to be eradicated )orld)ide by a accination program. !ffectie accines against tetanus to in# rubella irus# and polioirus )ere deeloped in the '2th century and are )idely used. There is no effectie accine against  Mycobacteriumtuberculosis. 3.A preiously healthy /4year4old boy is infected )ith an upper respiratory tract irus for the first time. During the first fe) hours of infection# )hich one of the follo)ing eents occurs*A.The adaptie immune system responds rapidly to the irus and eeps the iral infection under control.  Test Ban B.The innate immune system responds rapidly to the iral infection and eeps the iral infection under control.C.Passie immunity mediated by maternal antibodies limits the spread of infection.D.B and T lymphocytes recogni5e the irus and stimulate the innate immune response.!.The irus causes malignant transformation of respiratory mucosal epithelial cells# and the malignant cells are recogni5ed by the adaptie immune system. A'S: B The innate immune response to microbes deelops )ithin hours of infection# )ell before the adaptie immune response. B and T lymphocytes are components of the adaptie immune response# and they )ould not be able to respond to a ne)ly encountered irus  before the innate immune response. An /4year4old boy )ould no longer hae maternal antibodies from transplacental passie transfer and is unliely to be breast4feeding# )hich is another potential source of maternal antibodies. 6alignant transformation taes months or years to deelop.7.(hich of the follo)ing is a uni&ue property of the adaptie immune system*A.8ighly dierse repertoire of specificities for antigensB.+elf4nonself discriminationC.Recognition of microbial structures by both cell4associated and soluble receptorsD.Protection against iral infections!.Responses that hae the same inetics and magnitude on repeated e posure to the same microbe A'S: A 8ighly dierse repertoires of specificities for antigens are found only in T and B lymphocytes# )hich are the central cellular components of the adaptie immune system. Both the innate and the adaptie immune systems use cell4associated and soluble receptorsto recogni5e microbes# display some degree of self4nonself discrimination# and protect against iruses. 9n repeated e posure to the same microbe# the adaptie immune response becomes more rapid and of greater magnitude this is the manifestation of memory.;.Antibodies and T lymphocytes are the respectie mediators of )hich t)o types of immunity*A.,nnate and adaptieB.Passie and actieC.+pecific and nonspecificD.8umoral and cell4mediated!.Adult and neonatal A'S: ( Both B and T lymphocytes are principal components of adaptie immunity. B lymphocytes produce antibodies# )hich are the recognition and effector molecules of humoral immune responses to e tracellular pathogens. T cells recogni5e and promote eradication of intracellular pathogens in cell4mediated immunity. Passie and actie immunity both can bemediated by either B or T lymphocytes. Specific immunity  is another term for adaptie 14'  Test Ban immunity. Both B and T lymphocytes participate in adult adaptie immunity but are still deeloping in the neonatal period.<.A standard treatment of animal bite ictims# )hen there is a possibility that the animal )as infected )ith the rabies irus# is administration of human immunoglobulin  preparations containing anti=rabies irus antibodies. (hich type of immunity )ould be established by this treatment*A.Actie humoral immunityB.Passie humoral immunityC.Actie cell4mediated immunityD.Passie cell4mediated immunity!.,nnate immunity A'S: B 8umoral immunity is mediated by antibodies. The transfer of protectie antibodies made  by one or more indiiduals into another indiidual is a form of passie humoral immunity. Actie immunity to an infection deelops )hen an indiidual>s o)n immune system responds to the microbe. Cell4mediated immunity is mediated by T lymphocytes# not antibodies# and innate immunity is not mediated by either antibodies or T lymphocytes.-.At 1; months of age# a child receied a measles4mumps4rubella accine ?66R@. At age ''# she is liing )ith a family in 6e ico that has not been accinated and she is e posed to measles. Despite the e posure# she does not become infected. (hich of the follo)ing properties of the adaptie immune system is best illustrated by this scenario*A.+pecificityB.DiersityC.+peciali5ationD.6emory!.onreactiity to self  A'S: ( Protection against infections after accination is due to immunologic memory of the adaptie immune system. 6emory is manifested as a more rapidly deeloping and igorous response on repeat e posure to an antigen compared )ith the first e posure. +pecificity and diersity are properties related to the range of antigenic structures recogni5ed by the immune system# and speciali5ation is the ability of the adaptie immune system to use distinct effector mechanisms for distinct infections./.A accine administered in the autumn of one year may protect against the prealent strain of influen5a irus that srcinated in 8ong ong that same year# but it )ill not  protect against another strain of influen5a irus that srcinated in Russia. This  phenomenon illustrates )hich property of the adaptie immune system*A.+pecificityB.AmnesiaC.+peciali5ationD.Cultural diersity!.+elf4tolerance143  Test Ban  A'S: A Adaptie immune responses are highly specific for distinct molecular structures# )hich may be present in a accine and be produced by one strain of irus but not by a closely related strain. Amnesia# although generally not used in immunology# implies lac of memory# but the efficacy of the accine against the 8ong ong strain implies it has induced memory. The same effector mechanisms )ould be re&uired to combat different strains of influen5a# and therefore failure of a accine to protect against t)o different strains of irus is not related to speciali5ation of effector functions..The t)o major functional classes of effector T lymphocytes are:A.8elper T lymphocytes and cytoto ic T lymphocytesB.atural iller cells and cytoto ic T lymphocytesC.6emory T cells and effector T cellsD.8elper cells and antigen4presenting cells!.Cytoto ic T lymphocytes and target cells A'S: A T cells can be classified into effector subsets that perform different effector functions. 6ost effector T cells are either helper T lymphocytes# )hich promote macrophage and B cell responses to infections# or cytoto ic T lymphocytes# )hich directly ill infected cells.  atural iller cells are not T lymphocytes. Antigen4presenting cells usually are not T cells. 6emory T cells are not effector T cells.12.(hich of the follo)ing cell types is re&uired for all humoral immune responses*A.atural iller cellsB.Dendritic cellsC.Cytolytic T lymphocytesD.B lymphocytes!.8elper T lymphocytes A'S: ( 8umoral immune responses are antibody4mediated immune responses# and all antibodies are made by B lymphocytes and by no other cell type.11.During a humoral immune response to a ne)ly encountered bacterial infection# B cells are first stimulated to proliferate and then secrete antibodies specific for the bacterium. The antibodies may then bind to the bacteria and facilitate ingestion of the microbes by  phagocytic cells. ,n )hat phase of the humoral immune response does the binding of secreted antibodies to bacteria occur*A.Recognition phaseB.Actiation phaseC.!ffector phaseD.8omeostatic phase!.6emory phase A'S: C The effector phase of an immune response occurs )hen cells or molecules eliminate the microbe or microbial to in. ,n a humoral immune response# the effector phase includes 147
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