Apollonius of Tyana - F.C. Conybeare (by Sacred Texts)

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Apollonius of Tyana
   The Life of Apollonius of Tyana, by Philostratus, tr. F.C. Conybeare, [1912], at sacredte!  P#$L%&T'AT(& T#) L$F) %F AP%LL%*$(& %F T+A*A T#) )P$&TL)& %F AP%LL%*$(& A* T#) T')AT$&) %F )(&)-$(& $T# A* )*/L$&# T'A*&LAT$%* -+ F.C. C%*+-)A'), 0.A. LAT) F)LL% A* P')L)CT%' %F (*$)'&$T+ C%LL)/), %F%' $* T% %L(0)& CA0-'$/), 0A&&AC#(&)TT& #A'A' (*$)'&$T+ P')&& L%*%* $LL$A0 #)$*)0A** LT. [1912]Proofed and for atted at sacredte!ts, 3une 2445. This te!t is in the public do ain in the (nited &tates because it 6as published prior to 3anuary 1st, 1927. These files ay be used for any nonco ercial purpose, pro8ided this notice of  attribution is left intact in all copies.Clic to enlar:eFrontispiece to ol. $; AP%LL%*$(& %F T+A*A <=>. -(&T $* T#) CAP$T%L$*) 0(&)(0, '%0). The Life of Apollonius of Tyana, by Philostratus, tr. F.C. Conybeare, [1912], at sacredte! [p. 8ii] $*T'%(CT$%*T#) Life of Apollonius of Tyana has only been once translated in its entirety into )n:lish, as lon: a:o as the year 1?11, by an $rish cler:y an of the na e of ). -er6ic. $t is to be hoped therefore that the present translation 6ill be acceptable to the )n:lish readin: public@ for there is in it uch that is 8ery :ood readin:, and it is li:htly 6ritten. %f its author, Philostratus, 6e do not no6 uch apart fro his o6n 6ors, fro 6hich 6e ay :ather that he 6as born in the island of Le nos about the year 152 of our era, that he 6ent to Athens as a youn: an to study rhetoric, and later on to 'o e. #ere he acuired a reputation as a sophist, and 6as dra6n into 6hat 6e ay call the salon of the literary and philosophic ) press 3ulia o na, the 6ife of &epti ius &e8erus. &he put into his hands certain e oirs of Apollonius, the sa:e of Tyana, 6ho had died in e!tre e old a:e nearly[p. 8iii][para:raph continues] 144 years before durin: the rei:n of the ) peror *er8a, and she be::ed hi to use the for the co position of a literary life of the sa:e in uestion. These e oirs had been co posed by a disciple and co panion of Apollonius na ed a is, a nati8e of the city of *ine8eh, 6hose style, Philostratus says, lie that of ost &yrian /rees, 6as hea8y and 6antin: in polish. -esides these e oirs Philostratus used for his 6or a history of the career of Apollonius at Ae:ae, 6ritten by an ad irer of the na e of 0a!i us. #e also used the any letters of Apollonius 6hich 6ere in circulation. #is collection of these a:reed partly, but not 6holly, 6ith those 6hich are preser8ed to us and translated belo6. #e tells us further that the ) peror #adrian had a collection of these letters in his 8illa at Antiu . Philostratus also possessed 8arious treatises of Apollonius 6hich ha8e not co e do6n to us. -eside ain: use of the 6ritten sources here enu erated Philostratus had tra8elled about, not only to Tyana, 6here there 6as a te ple specially dedicated to the cult of Apollonius, but to other cities 6here the sa:eBs e ory 6as held in honour, in order to collect such traditions of the sa:e as he found still current. Fro these sources then the 6or before us 6as dra6n, for althou:h Philostratus[p. i!]also ne6 the four boos of a certain 0oera:enes upon Apollonius, he tells us he paid no attention to the , because they displayed an i:norance of any thin:s  6hich concerned the sa:e. The learned ) press see s ne8er to ha8e li8ed to read the 6or of Philostratus, for it is not dedicated to her and cannot ha8e been published before the year 215.$t has been ar:ued that the 6or of a is ne8er really e!isted, and that he 6as a ere an of stra6 in8ented by Philostratus. This 8ie6 6as adopted as recently as the year 1914 by Professor -i::, in his history of the ori:ins of Christianity. -ut it see s unnecessarily sceptical. $t is uite true that Philostratus puts into the outh of the sa:e, on the authority of a is, con8ersations and ideas 6hich, as they recur in the Li8es of the &ophists of Philostratus, can hardly ha8e been reported by a is. -ut because he resorted to this literary tric, it by no eans follo6s that all the episodes 6hich he reports on the authority of a is are fictitious, for any of the possess :reat 8erisi ilitude and can hardly ha8e been in8ented as late as the year 215, 6hen the life 6as co pleted and :i8en to the literary 6orld. $t is rather to be supposed that a is hi self 6as not alto:ether a credible 6riter, but one 6ho, lie the socalled[p. !]aretalo:i of that a:e, set hi self to e bellish the life of his aster, to e!a::erate his 6isdo and his supernatural po6ers@ if so, ore than one of the striin: stories told by Philostratus ay ha8e already stood in the pa:es of a is.#o6e8er this be, the e8ident ai of Philostratus is to rehabilitate the reputation of Apollonius, and defend hi fro the char:e of ha8in: been a charlatan or 6iard addicted to e8il a:ical practices. This accusation had been le8elled a:ainst the sa:e durin: his lifeti e by a ri8al sophist )uphrates, and not lon: after his death by the author already entioned, 0oera:enes. (nfortunately the orations of )uphrates ha8e perished, and 6e no6 little of the 6or of 0oera:enes. %ri:en, the Christian father, in his 6or a:ainst Celsus, 6ritten about the year 2D4, infor s us that he had read it, and that it attaced Apollonius as a a:ician addicted to sinister practices. $t is certain also that the accusations of )uphrates 6ere of si ilar tendency, and 6e only need to read a 8ery fe6 pa:es of this 6or of Philostratus to see that his chief interest is to pro8e to the 6orld that these accusations 6ere illfounded, and that Apollonius 6as a di8inelyinspired sa:e and prophet, and a refor er alon: Pytha:orean lines of the Pa:an[p. !i]reli:ion. $t is possible that so e of the stories told by -yantine 6riters of Apollonius, notably by 3ohn Tetes, deri8e fro 0oera:enes.The story of the life of Apollonius as narrated by Philostratus is briefly as follo6s. #e 6as born to6ards the be:innin: of the Christian era at Tyana, in Cappadocia, and his birth 6as attended accordin: to popular tradition 6ith iracles and portents. At the a:e of si!teen he set hi self to obser8e in the ost ri:id fashion the al ost onastic rule ascribed to Pytha:oras, renouncin: 6ine, reEectin: the arried estate, refusin: to eat any sort of flesh, and in particular conde nin: the sacrifice of ani als to the :ods, 6hich in the ancient 6orld furnished the occasion, at any rate for the poor people, of eatin: eat. For 6e ust not for:et that in antiuity hardly any eat 6as eaten 6hich had not pre8iously been consecrated by sacrifice to a :od, and that conseuently the priest 6as the butcher of a 8illa:e and the butcher the priest. Lie other 8otaries of the *eoPytha:orean philosophy or discipline, Apollonius 6ent 6ithout shoes or only 6ore shoes of bar, he allo6ed his hair to :ro6 lon:, and ne8er let a raor touch his chin, and he too care to 6ear on his person nothin: but linen, for it 6as accounted by hi , as by -rah ans, an i purity to allo6 any  [p. !ii]dress ade of the sin of dead ani als to touch the person. -efore lon: he set hi self up as a refor er, and betain: hi self to the to6n of Ae:ae, he too up his abode in the te ple of Aesculapius, 6here he rapidly acuired such a reputation for sanctity that sic people floced to hi asin: hi to heal the . %n attainin: his aEority, at the death of his father and other, he :a8e up the :reater part of his patri ony to his elder brother, and 6hat 6as left to his poor relations. #e then set hi self to spend fi8e years in co plete silence, tra8ersin:, it 6ould see , Asia 0inor, in all directions, but ne8er openin: his lips. The ore than Trappist 8o6 of silence 6hich he thus enforced upon hi self see s to ha8e further enhanced his reputation for holiness, and his ere appearance on the scene 6as enou:h to hush the noise of 6arrin: factions in the cities of Cilicia and Pa phylia. $f 6e ay belie8e his bio:rapher he professed to no6 all lan:ua:es 6ithout e8er ha8in: learned the , to no6 the in ost thou:hts of en, to understand the lan:ua:e of birds and ani als, and to ha8e the po6er of predictin: the future. #e also re e bered his for er incarnation, for he shared the Pytha:orean belief of the i:rations of hu an souls fro body to body, both of ani als and of hu an bein:s. #e preached[p. !iii]a ri:id asceticis , and conde ned all dancin: and other di8ersions of the ind@ he 6ould carry no oney on his person and reco ended others to spend their oney in the relief of the poorer classes. #e 8isited Persia and $ndia, 6here he consorted 6ith the -rah ans@ he subseuently 8isited ):ypt, and 6ent up the *ile in order to acuaint hi self 6ith those precursors of the ons of the Thebaid called in those days the /y nosophists or naed philosophers. #e 8isited the cataracts of the *ile, and returnin: to Ale!andria held lon: con8ersations 6ith espasian and Titus soon after the sie:e and capture of 3erusale by the latter. #e had a fe6 years before, in the course of a 8isit to 'o e, incurred the 6rath of *ero, 6hose inister Ti:ellinus ho6e8er 6as so inti idated by hi as to set hi at liberty. After the death of Titus he 6as a:ain arrested, this ti e by the ) peror o itian, as a fo enter of sedition, but 6as apparently acuitted. #e died at an ad8anced a:e in the rei:n of *er8a, 6ho befriended hi @ and accordin: to popular tradition he ascended bodily to hea8en, appearin: after death to certain persons 6ho entertained doubts about a future life.To6ards the end of the third century 6hen the stru::le bet6een Christianity and decadent Pa:anis [p. !i8]had reached its last and bitterest sta:e, it occurred to so e of the ene ies of the ne6 reli:ion to set up Apollonius, to 6ho te ples and shrines had been erected in 8arious parts of Asia 0inor, as a ri8al to the founder of Christianity. The any iracles 6hich 6ere recorded of Apollonius, and in particular his e inent po6er o8er e8il spirits or de ons, ade hi a for idable ri8al in the inds of Pa:ans to 3esus Christ. And a certain #ierocles, 6ho 6as a pro8incial :o8ernor under the ) peror iocletian, 6rote a boo to sho6 that Apollonius had been as :reat a sa:e, as re arable a 6orer of iracles, and as potent an e!orcist as 3esus Christ. #is 6or :a8e :reat offence to the issionaries of the Christian reli:ion, and )usebius the Christian historian 6rote a treatise in ans6er, in 6hich he alle:es that Apollonius 6as a ere charlatan, and if a a:ician at all, then one of 8ery inferior po6ers@ he also ar:ues that if he did achie8e any re arable results, it 6as thans to the e8il spirits 6ith 6ho he 6as in lea:ue. )usebius is careful, ho6e8er, to point out that before #ierocles, no anti
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