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3. History of anaerobic biodigestion Sparse evidence suggests that biogas was known to the Assyrians and Persians centuries before Jesus Christ was born. Further evidence is traceable to count Alessandro olta who in ! # concluded that there was a direct link between the a$ount of decaying organic $atter and the a$ount of fla$$able gas produced. Sir Hu$phrey %avy deter$ined in !&'& that $ethane was present in the gasses produced during the anaerobic deco$position of cattle $anure. Hel$ont
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  3. History of anaerobic biodigestion Sparse evidence suggests that biogas was known to the Assyrians and Persians centuries before Jesus Christ was born. Further evidence is traceable to count Alessandro olta who in ! # concluded that there was a direct link between the a$ount of decaying organic $atter and the a$ount of fla$$able gas  produced. Sir Hu$phrey %avy deter$ined in !&'& that $ethane was present in the gasses produced during the anaerobic deco$position of cattle $anure. Hel$ont recorded the e$anation of an infla$$able gas fro$ decaying organic $atter in the ! th century ()rakel* !+&',. -t was not until towards the end of the !+th century that $ethanogenesis was found to be connected to $icrobial activity. -n !&#&* )echa$p na$ed the organis$ responsible for $ethane production fro$ ethanol. his organis$ could $ore accurately be described as a $i/ed population. )echa$p was able to show that* depending on the substrate different fer$entation products were for$ed. 0ehnder et al (!+&1, stated thatit was in !& # when Herter reported that acetate in sewage was converted to e2ual a$ounts of $ethane and carbon dio/ide. eynell (!+ #, noted that the first anaerobic digestion plant was built in )o$bay* -ndia in !&4+. he first notable use of biog5s in 6ngland occurred in !&4+ when gas derived fro$ a sewage treat$ent facility was used to fuel street la$ps in 6/eter (cCabe and 6ckenfelder* !+4 ,. henin !+'7* ravis put into operation a new two8stage process in which the suspended $aterial was separated fro$ the wastewater and allowed to pass into a separate 9hydroly:ing; cha$ber (Carcelon and Clark* 1''1,. )uswell and Hatfield (!+3#, and so$e other researchers in the !+3's identified anaerobic  bacteria and the conditions that pro$ote the production of $ethane. heir worksalso e/plained such issues as the fate of nitrogen in the anaerobic digestion process* stoichio$etry of the reactions* as well asthe production of energy fro$ far$ and industrial wastes through the anaerobic digestion process. <egarding anaerobic technology* far$ based facilities are the $ost co$$on. -n conte$porary ti$es low=technology biogas digesters have been $ost e/tensively used in China and -ndia. )ui8>uan (1''7,  pointed out that low cost biogas technology has been well received by s$all holder far$s in $any developing countries for producing a clean fuel to replace firewood* within the recent ten years. Stating that $ore than twenty thousand digesters have been installed in ietna$* $ainly paid for by the far$ers?however biodigesters are still not fully integrated into the far$ing syste$ as there is only li$ited use of  by8products (effluent, as fertili:er for vegetables* fruit trees* fish pond and water plants. he paper further stated that the use of effluent fro$ digester can be studied as a resource for s$all scale far$ers. -nterest in the technology is increasing in several other parts of the world.3 Hist@ria da biodigesto anaer@bia As escassas provas sugere 2ue o biog5s era conhecido pelos assBrios e persas sculos antes de Jesus Cristo nascer. Dutra evidEncia  rastre5vel para contar Alessandro olta* 2ue e$ ! # concluiu 2ue no havia u$a ligao direta entre a 2uantidade de $atria orgGnica e$ deco$posio e da 2uantidade de g5s infla$5vel produ:ido. Sir Hu$phrey %avy* e$ !&'&* deter$inou 2ue o $etano estava presente nos gases produ:idos durante a deco$posio anaer@bia de esterco bovino. Hel$ont registrou a e$anao de u$ g5s infla$5vel de $atria orgGnica e$ deco$posio no sculo ! ()rakel* !+&',. o foi at  perto do fi$ do sculo !+ 2ue a $etanognese foi encontrado para ser conectado a actividade $icrobiana. 6$ !&#&* )echa$p no$eado o organis$o respons5vel pela produo de $etano a partir do etanol. 6ste organis$o pode ser $ais precisa$ente descrito co$o u$a populao $ista. )cha$p foi capa: de $ostrar 2ue* dependendo dos produtos de fer$entao de substratos diferentes fora$ for$ados. 0ehnder et al (!+&1, afir$ou 2ue era e$ !& #* 2uando Herter infor$ou 2ue o acetato de esgoto foi convertido e$ 2uantidades iguais de $etano e di@/ido de carbono. eynell (!+ #, observou 2ue a pri$eira planta de digesto anaer@bia foi construBdo e$ )o$bai$* India* e$ !&4+ D pri$eiro uso not5vel de biog5s na -nglaterra ocorreu e$ !&4+* 2uando o g5s derivado de u$a instalao de trata$ento de esgoto foi usado para ali$entar lG$padas de rua e$ 6/eter (cCabe e 6ckenfelder* !+4 ,. 6$ seguida* e$ !+'7* ravis colocar e$ funciona$ento u$ novo processo de duas fases e$ 2ue o $aterial suspenso foi separada das 5guas residuais e dei/ada passar para u$ hidrolisar cG$ara separada (Carcelon e Clark* 1''1,. )uswell e Hatfield (!+3#, e alguns outros pes2uisadores na dcada  de !+3' bactrias anaer@bias identificados e as condiKes 2ue pro$ove$ a produo de $etano. Sua worksalso e/plicou 2uestKes co$o o destino do nitrogEnio no processo de digesto anaer@bia* este2uio$etria das reaKes* be$ co$o a produo de energia a partir de resBduos agrBcolas e industriais atravs do processo de digesto anaer@bia. Luanto M tecnologia anaer@bia* instalaKes agrBcolas co$  base so os $ais co$uns. os te$pos atuais de bai/a tecnologia digestores de biog5s fora$ $ais a$pla$ente utili:ado na China e na India. )ui >uan8(1''7, apontou 2ue a tecnologia de biog5s de  bai/o custo te$ sido be$ recebido por pe2uenos agricultores titular e$ $uitos paBses e$ desenvolvi$ento para a produo de u$ co$bustBvel li$po para substituir a lenha* nos Nlti$os de: anos. Afir$ando 2ue $ais de vinte $il biodigestores fora$ instalados no ietn* pagos principal$ente  para pelos agricultores? no entanto biodigestores ainda no esto total$ente integrados no siste$a de agricultura 2ue haOa u$ uso li$itado de subprodutos (efluente, co$o adubo para hortalias* 5rvores frutBferas* lago de pei/es e plantas a2u5ticas. D Oornal afir$ou ainda 2ue o uso de efluente de biodigestor  pode ser estudada co$o u$ recurso para os pe2uenos agricultores. D interesse na tecnologia est5 a au$entar e$ inN$eras outras partes do $undo.
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