Byzantine Architecture

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Byzantine Architecture
  Byzantine ArchitectureT he architecture of the Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire which developed fromEarly Christian and late Roman antecedents in the 4th century.After the Christian Church emerged from the catacombs, its first great edifice, begun bythe Emperor ustinian, was !agia ophia #$%&'$%() in Constantinople, the *+ew Rome*founded on the site of Byzantium by Constantine, the irst Christian Emperor of theRoman Empire.-he style of !agia ophia, developing as it did midway between the ancient cultures of reece. and /ersia, partoo0 of the characteristics of both. Ancient forms of architectureand decoration were used by the early Christian artists to develop what has now becomeChristian symbolism,-he architectural and decorative style thus begun in Constantinople spread throughout thefourth, fifth and si1th century Christian world until the fall of Constantinople to the -ur0s#24$%). Features E ach church has a covered porch #narthe1) to the west and an altar behind the iconostasis in the eastern apse. -he apse is often hidden from public view by an elaborate iconostasis screen, through whose doors only the clergy are admitted. -he nave typically has three aisles with the dome above the central s3uare space. rescoes and mosaics in churches interiors were organized according to a standard scheme. ymbolically, images descended from heaven #Christ /anto0rator  in the dome)to earth #the saints on the lowest level). -he 5irgin was shown in the semi'dome of theapse, with the fathers of the church below her.-he side walls are decorated registers or formal placements. 6n the lowest level standlife'size portrayals of the saints, their heads illuminated with haloes. 7ore comple1scenes portraying incidents from the ospels or or the 8ay of udgment fill the upper walls and vaults. Apse  -he recess, usually semicircular, at the end of a Roman  basilica or a Christian church.   Basilica 9n Roman architecture, a public building for assemblies, especially tribunals, rectangular in plan, entered on a long side. 9n Christian architecture, an early church somewhatresembling the Roman basilica: usually entered from one end with an apse at the other creating an a1ial plan. Dome  A hemispherical roof or vault. ymbolically filled by the figure of Christ in udgment, the /anto0rator. Choirs of angelsswirl around !im, and outside them stand the 6ld testament prophets.  Fresco  -he art of painting on fresh, moist plaster with pigments dissolved in water.  Icon A representation or picture of a sacred or sanctified personage, traditional to the EasternChurch.  Iconostasis  A screen in Byzantine churches separating the sanctuary from the nave and pierced bythree doors, srcinally a lattice of columns ;oined by a decorated parapet and coping. ince the 24th'2$th c. it has become a wooden or stone wall covered with icons, hence thename. Mosaic A picture or decorative design made by setting small colored pieces, as of stone or tile, into a surface.  Narthex  An entrance hall leading to the nave of a church Nave -he central aisle of a church  Pantokrator Christ in udgment  Sanctuary A sacred place, such as a church, temple or mos3ue. ault An arched ceiling or roof of stone or bric0, sometimes imitated in wood or plaster.
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