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   LAYOUT AND LINING OF   CANALS Appropriate technology for micro hydroelectric power schemes Author Jorge Segura Revision and Corrections Luis Rodríguez Illustrations Pablo Núñez Translation Doreen Fisher & Edward Stevens      2 LAYOUT AND LINING OF CANALS Appropriate technology for micro hydroelectric power schemes INTRODUCTION The use of small hydroelectric plants is an alternative for the development of thousands of isolated areas without any hope of being connected to the national electricity grid. However, some important difficulties need to be overcome if the plants are to be a valid alternative, such as costs, the availability of equipment, technology, training on the maintenance and repairs of facilities, and so on. Costs are naturally related to the availability of a local and appropriate technology. In an effort to make the use of Micro Hydroelectric Power Schemes a viable alternative for poor rural sectors, on this occasion ITDG is publishing an interesting canal construction method referred to as the “CERCHAS” [WOODEN FRAMES] METHOD  . ITDG has used this method to build canals in micro hydroelectric power schemes implemented in various parts of the country, reducing costs by 50% on materials and 30% on manpower, compared to the traditional formwork method. This handbook is written in a simple language and contains guidelines for applying the above mentioned method, from the layout and excavation work to the lining and curing of the mix, guaranteeing the quality of the finished work. The use of this handbook is not limited to hydro power, as we believe its dissemination could be of help to other fields such as irrigation. The IT-PERU Hydro Power Programme believes this publication will be a valuable contribution to the efficient use of water for the benefit of rural people. Intermediate Technology (Soluciones Prácticas) This booklet was srcinally produced by ITDG – Programa de Hidroenergía, Perú (now Soluciones Prácticas) in 1993, ISBN 1 85339 164 6. It was translated by Doreen Fisher and Edward Stevens for Practical Action in 2008.    3 LAYOUT AND CONSTRUCTION OF CANALS CANALS A canal is an open-air waterway along which water flows unassisted. The two main characteristics of every canal are: - Geometric characteristics and - Hydraulic characteristics These are illustrated below. Geometric characteristics (Fig. 1) b = inner border B = Canal bed B ’ = Top base of the canal b’ = outer border h = Depth of the canal ø   = Angle of the canal slope A 󲀙  = Cross-cut section of the canal (it can be rectangular, circular, trapezoidal or triangular) Hydraulic characteristics (Fig. 2) Q = Water flow (litres/second) V = Water velocity (m/second) A = Area of the cross-section of the mass of water conveyed by the canal (m 2 ). Its shape will depend on the cross-section of the canal S = Slope or inclination of the canal bed, expressed in percentage terms or in so much per thousand d = Water stress or depth R = Hydraulic radius. R = A/P P = Wet perimeter, the sum of two banks and the canal bed which are in contact with the water n = Rugosity coefficient. Its value depends on the material the canal is made of (earth, concrete, stone, etc.).    4 Types of canal: (Fig. 3) The most commonly excavated canals are rectangular, trapezoidal, circular and triangular, though this depends on the cross-section. Fig.1 Fig.2 (B ’’’’ m + Bm) d A = ----------------------- p = Bm + 2t 2  Fig. 3
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