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CASO 1. LA VOZ DEL CLIENTE (VOC) Métodos Estadísticos para la Toma de Decisiones 1 Becoming Customer Focused Johnson Controls, Inc., is a publicly traded company with over a 115-year history of excellence. Johnson Controls, Inc., is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol JCI. Financial performance of the company through 1999 includes $16.1 billion in sales, 52 years of consecutive sales increases, 23 successive years of dividend increases, 8 consecutive
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  CASO 1. LA VOZ DEL CLIENTE (VOC) Métodos Estadísticos para la Toma de Decisiones 1 Becoming Customer Focused Johnson Controls, Inc., is a publicly traded company with over a 115-year history of excellence. Johnson Controls, Inc., is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol JCI  . Financial performance of the company through 1999 includes $16.1 billion in sales, 52 years of consecutive sales increases, 23 successive years of dividend increases, 8 consecutive years of net income increases, and dividends paid consecutively since 1885. Johnson Controls, Inc., is 126 on the Fortune 500 list as of 1999. and has over 95,000 employees at nearly 500 locations worldwide. The headquarters for Johnson Controls, Inc., is in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Johnson Controls, Inc., has been selected as one of the top 25 places to work and has been awarded the 1999 Energy Star Buildings  Ally by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Johnson Controls, Inc., contains two major business areas: the Controls Group and the  Automotive Systems Group. The Controls Group is the world leader in supplying, installing, and maintaining systems to control heating, ventilating, air conditioning, lighting, security, and fire management for buildings and, through its Integrated Facilities Management Business, provides total management of an organization's facilities. The Automotive Systems Group is the global market leader in seating and interior systems (seats, door panels, overhead systems, instrumental panels, etc.) for every major light vehicle and passenger automobile manufacturer in the world including BMW, Daimler Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Honda, Mazda, Mercedes- Benz, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Renault, Rover, Toyota, and Volkswagen. The Battery Business is the world's largest automotive battery manufacturer in the world and provides aftermarket batteries for Auto Zone, Sears, Interstate Batteries, Wal-Mart, and Costco, among others, as well as OEM batteries for DaimlerChrysler, Ford, Honda, Nissan, and Toyota. Johnson Controls, Inc., has expanded remarkably since Professor Warren Johnson founded the company to manufacture his invention, the room thermostat. Since its start in 1855, Johnson Controls, Inc., has grown to a multibillion dollar corporation with worldwide leadership. Fundamental to this success is the Johnson Control s, Inc., mission to continually exceed customers' increasing expectations. The company and its employees believe that if they go beyond what customers expect, customers will return again and again, asking Johnson Controls, Inc., to further contribute to their success. That is why, over all its businesses, Johnson Controls, Inc., is doing more for its customers than it did just a few years ago. Automakers, for example, outsource their seating requirements to Johnson Controls, Inc., to improve quality and reduce costs. They look to the company not just to manufacture a complete seat or component; they also look for Johnson Controls, lnc., to design it, engineer it, integrate it with surrounding parts, and deliver it globally. By offering automotive interior innovations that surprise and delight customers, Johnson Controls, lnc., helps automakers improve vehicle comfort and convenience. lntegration of electronics into vehicle interiors is one of its specialties, ranging from global positioning systems to digital compasses and Homelink®. The company is continuously developing new products and holds more patents than any other automotive interior supplier. The Automotive Systems Group was selected as the number one supplier for General Motors in 1999. With more than 115 years of experience in the controls industry, Johnson Controls, lnc., understands buildings better than anyone else. That is why tens of thousands of commercial, institutional, and government building owners and managers around the world turn to Johnson Controls, lnc., to improve the quality of buildings' indoor environments by  CASO 1. LA VOZ DEL CLIENTE (VOC) Métodos Estadísticos para la Toma de Decisiones 2 maximizing comfort, productivity, safety, and energy efficiency. The company engineers, manufactures, and installs control systems that automate a building's heating, ventilating, and air conditioning, as well as lighting, security, and tire safety equipment. Its Metasys® Facility Management system automates a building's mechanical systems for optimal comfort levels while using the least amount of energy; it monitors tire sensors and building access, controls the lights, tracks equipment maintenance, and helps building managers make better decisions. Building systems at many companies are critical to achieving their corporate missions. In the pharmaceutical industry, for example, the failure of a building's equipment or staff to maintain the proper laboratory conditions could mean the loss of years of new drug research and development. In a bank's data center, the failure of cooling equipment could shut down computer systems, delaying millions of dollars in transactions every minute. For these kinds of mission-critical requirements, customers turn to Johnson Controls, lnc., for integrated facility management. The company furnishes full-time, on-site staff and management to handle all of a building's operating and maintenance services. Johnson Controls, lnc., employees manage more than 1.2 billion square feet of commercial building space around the world, providing customers with unmatched technical expertise. Global Customer Satisfaction Surveys  A global customer satisfaction survey is a large-scale survey of customers. The term global is used because the survey should measure all five components of value: product quality, service quality, price, image, and relationships. Several of the five components may have many subareas that address very specific attributes. The global survey should measure the customers' perceptions and attitudes from very broad conceptual issues down to very detailed activities. As a result, global surveys usually have between 40 and 100 questions, most of which are quantitatively scaled. For a number of years, the approach at Johnson Controls, lnc., toward customer satisfac-tion measurement was sporadic and inconsistent. There are a number of business units within the Controls Business, each doing its own thing, more or less. Some units were sur-veying regularly, and others were not surveying customers at all. There were a few pock-ets of passion throughout the organization that were using the data to improve product or service delivery. Some of the surveys were one-time studies that were conducted by different firms. For example, there were three different studies conducted by three different vendors. Each study used different questions, wording, and response scales and produced research reports that were each different. Making direct comparisons between survey results was impossible. So, in late 1996, changes were implemented. The first step was to develop a consistent survey format. All of the global questions and research methodologies were moved to consistent wording, scaling, and reporting. This caused some problems initially because some of the quality managers had been tracking customer perceptions by using a 7-point response scale. Others were using a 5-point scale. All those who were surveying had their own databases and tracking approaches. Then, surveying was moved to a 5-point-Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair, Poor-scale. As a result, the old and new approaches needed to be calibrated against one another.  CASO 1. LA VOZ DEL CLIENTE (VOC) Métodos Estadísticos para la Toma de Decisiones 3  A series of global questions were developed and put at the beginning of all questionnaires. This allowed for comparisons across all business units for the first time. Some of the global questions were subsequently used when an overall scorecard was developed. When the transition was made to a new questionnaire, a series of depth interviews were conducted for each segment. It was desired that the questions being asked were the correct questions from the customer's viewpoint. This allowed for fine-tuning the questionnaire. It took over a year before the pockets of resistance to the new approach began to subside. But, gradually, everyone bought into the new approach and accepted that the changes were made.  As focus was placed on external customers, more attention began to be paid to internal customers. One of the biggest customers for the equipment manufacturing business unit is the Controls Business's own Systems and Services (SS) unit. An internal customer satisfaction survey was developed that was consistent with the external surveys. However, the internal survey was administered through the Intranet, while the external surveys were administered using telephone interviews. It was the first time that internal customers had been surveyed, and it helped to reinforce the focus on customers of all types. The mission of Johnson Controls, Inc., is to continually exceed customers' increasing expectations. Customer satisfaction is one of five core values and is the first of five overall company objectives. This focus emphasizes and aligns the importance of customer satisfaction to overall business performance and makes it a key driver for the activities of all company employees.  A value model (Figure 1.) has been developed, based upon focus groups with customers, that defines customer satisfaction attributes. This value model, has also been used to develop a Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI), which is used as a key measurement of performance across the Controls Business of Johnson Controls. Inc. Figure 1. Customer Value Model Image Pricing Personnel OVERALL Customer Sales SATISFACCION ←  Satisfaction ←  Product Attributes Index (CSI) Format Technical Support Ordering Documentation Billing Transaction Surveys  A transaction survey is an integral part of a comprehensive customer satisfaction program, global customer satisfaction surveys are comprehensive, higher level surveys that are conducted every 3, 6, or 12 months in most firms. With transaction surveys, detailed customer input is sought soon after an event or transaction has occurred. Transaction surveys provide fast, timely feedback from customers to process owners. The questions are very specific, more detailed than those on a global survey, and tied to both the  CASO 1. LA VOZ DEL CLIENTE (VOC) Métodos Estadísticos para la Toma de Decisiones 4 characteristics of the event or transaction and value-added processes. The timely and specific feedback from customers can be a valuable driver of process improvement. The Controls Business of Johnson Controls, Inc., among other activities, installs heating and ventilation equipment that maintains a building's environment. Each installation, whether a complete system installation or a modification and upgrade, generates an event-driven survey. When a job is completed, the project manager turns the associated paperwork in to one of 24 Area offices in North America. The Area offices then transfer the data to Controls Business headquarters in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, by the end of each month. There is a single person in the Milwaukee office who extracts the data and transfers a sample frame to the research firm, Naumann & Associates. This occurs by the fifth day, approximately, of each month. Naumann & Associates first checks the database for duplicate names. Many large clients could have several projects at different locations, and the decision rule is that an individual respondent can be surveyed no more frequently than once every 6 months. This check has been put in place to prevent oversurveying customers. Once the database is cleaned, surveying begins. Telephone surveying of installation customers is usually conducted during the second and third weeks of the month. It is normal to reach about 70 percent to 80 percent of the sample frame. Some phone numbers are wrong, disconnected, or are dedicated to fax machines, but the largest portion of nonresponse is for voice mails that are never answered. Each number in the sample frame is attempted a mínimum of 5 times. When bad numbers are encountered, appropriate information is transferred to a person in Controls Business headquarters who then searches for the correct information and updates the database. Surveying is always spread over 2 weeks so that respondents on vacation or out of town during a given week will be attempted the following week. Surveying is conducted in both French and English, as well as Spanish when necessary. Surveying is stopped by the fourth week of the month. The complete sample frame is developed for each month. This again requires cleaning to locate any data input errors. Once the database is cleaned, it is transferred to the contact person at the Controls Business headquarters in Milwaukee. It is then integrated into the comprehensive customer database. The database is maintained using Access software. As a result, both Johnson Controls, Inc., and Naumann & Associates had to be working off the same version of Access. Also, the individuals using Access had to be well trained. Initially, hardcopy reports were prepared each month and distributed to each Area General Manager as well as headquarters executives. Monthly reports were time-consuming to prepare and resulted in a bit of data overload. As a result, reporting was shifted to an elec-tronic format so that results were posted on the Controls Business Internet. Finally, the reporting format was switched to a quarterly basis. The primary reason for moving to quar-terly reports was statistical reliability. The monthly sample sizes varied widely, with each month having a different precision level. Due to sampling variation, the scores would fluc-
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