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Chandigarh Planning

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  INTRODUCTION Since punjab wasdivided into two parts,the capital was left inpakistan there forepunjab in indiarequired new capitalThe first masterplanfor the new capitalwas assigned to American engineer and planner Albert.Le corbusier wasapproached bypunjab governmentand the primeminister of india in! #a$well fry, janedrew and pierre jeanneret were alsoinvolved in the teamof architects ALBERT MAYER #ayer wasn%t new to &ndia. &n 'ecember, !(!, when the )unjabgovernment approached himfor the *handigarh project, he was already associated with a rural development project at+tawah -ttar )radesh, and preparation of master plans for /reater 0ombay and 1anpur.#ayer was thrilled with the prospect of planning a brand2new city, and he accepted theassignment although it offered him a modest fee of 345,555 for the entire project. 6is brief was to prepare a master plan for a city of half a million people, showing the location of major roads and areas for residence, business, industry, recreation andallied uses. 6e was also toprepare detailed building plans for the *apitol *omple$, *ity  *entre, and importantgovernment facilities and architectural controls for other areas. ALBERT MAYER’S MASTERPLAN The master plan which albert mayer produced for chandigarh assumes a fan2shapedoutline,spreading gently to fill the site between the two river beds. At the head of the plan was the *apitol , the seat of the stategovernment, and the *ity*entre was located in the heart of the city.Two linear parklands could also be noticed running continuously from the northeast headof the plain to its southwestern tip. A curving network of mainroads surrounded theneighborhood units called Super blocks.first phase of the city was to be developed on the north2eastern side to accommodate, 5,555 residents and the second phase on the South2western side for another 4 5,555people.#ayer liked 7 the variation of [Indian] streets, offsetting and breaking fromnarrow into wider and back  8 and thought that they were approprate to a !ando #trong #un!ght$ At the narrow pont#$ h# hou#e de#gn n%o!%ed an nner &ourtyard or %ent!aton wth #'a!! openng#on the #treet #de to prote&tpr%a&y( ) We loved this little inner  courtyard  $* Mayer wrote$ ) for it seemed tous to bring the advantages of coolness and dignity into a quite small house. *  Another element in planning was 7t o place a group of houses around a not very large court, with the ends somewhat narrowing, which could serve as asocial unit—i.e. a group of relatives or friends or people fromthe samelocality might live there, with the central area for play, gossip,etc  .8 Theneighbourhood units were to contain schools and local shopping centres.The flatness of the site allowed almost complete freedom in creating street layoutand it is of interest to note hat the overall pattern deliberatelyavoids a geometricgrid in favour of a loosely curving system.  Le &or+u#er  Le *orbusier requested the assistance of his cousin )ierre 9eanneret.9eanneret eventually agreed to live on the site as his representative andchief architect.Le *orbusier could then visit &ndia twice a year for a month at a time hecame to the site :: times. Thus, 9eanneret, together with ;ry and 'rew,as senior architects working in &ndia for a period of three years andassisted by a team of :5 idealistic young &ndian  architects, would detailthe plan and Le *orbusier could concentrate on major buildings. All four of the protagonists were members of the *ongres &nternationau$d<Architecture #oderne *&A#. T,REE DISCIPLINES The d#&p!ne o 'oney Le corbuiser once remarked that 8india has thetreasures of a proud culture,but her coffers are empty.8 And throughout the projectthe desire for grandness was hampered by the need for stricteconomy. &n workingup his designs,le corbuiser consulted the program for each building as given in thebudget and then prepared the initial project. The d#&p!ne o te&hno!ogy  Available in quantity, however, was good clay stoneand sand,and,above all% human labour. The materials of which chandigarh hasbeen constructed are rough concrete in the capitol comple$ and the centralbusiness district and for most of the city, especially in housing,locally producedbrick. The d#&p!ne o &!'ate 0esides the administrative and financial regulatonsthere was a law of the sun in india. The architectural problemconsists=first to makeshade,second to make a current of air>to ventilate?, third to control hydraulics.  AS T6+ #@ST +*@@#&*AL A' B+A'&LC
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