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This chapter C CCh hha aap ppt tte eer rr 1 11: :: I IIN NNT TTR RRO OOD DDU UUC CCT TTI IIO OON NN This chapter discusses what is philosophy and the branches of philosophy such as metaphysics, epistemology, ethics and logic. In each of these branches of philosophy, philosophers ask different questions; but on many issues there is overlap in the branches of philosophy. Also discussed are the benefits
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  CCChhhaaapppttteeer r r  111:::  IIINNNTTTRRROOODDDUUUCCCTTTIIIOOONNN  This chapter discusses what is philosophy and the branches of philosophy such as metaphysics, epistemology, ethics and logic. In each of these branches of philosophy,  philosophers ask different questions; but on many issues there is overlap in the branches of philosophy. Also discussed are the benefits of studying philosophy and its relationship to many different job types and careers and the philosophy of education. The final part of the chapter discusses briefly the Malaysian philosophy of education. Chapter Overview o   What is philosophy? o   Branches of philosophy o   Why study philosophy? o   What is the philosophy of education? o   Malaysian Philosophy of Education References Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to:    define what is philosophy    identify the branches of philosophy    explain the importance of studying philosophy    explain what is philosophy of education    relate the Malaysian Philosophy of Education to educational practice Chapter 1: Philosophy & the Malaysian Philosophy of Education   Chapter 2: Socrates and Plato   Chapter 3: Al-Farabi and Ibnu Sina   Chapter 4 : Jean Rousseau and John Locke Chapter 5: Confucius and Mencius Chapter 6: Paulo Freire and Friedrich Froebel Chapter 7: John Dewey Chapter 8: Rabindranath Tagore and Vivekananda Chapter 9: Other Philosophical Traditions  Chapter 1: Introduction 2 2 What is Philosophy? Most people find it difficult to define it what is philosophy as there is no single definition that can be readily accepted without some controversy. Perhaps that is why it is called philosophy! The word “philosophy” means “love of wisdom”  which comes from the Greek word  philos  meaning friendship or love) and  sophia  meaning wisdom. Some people say philosophy is too abstract and even controversial. Philosophers themselves can't agree on any answer. Sure, the name philosophy means love of wisdom , but what's that? There has been a long and glorious history of people called philosophers, but they talk about all kinds of topics in all kinds of ways. It is not clear what, if anything, they have in common that makes them all  philosophers. The following are some dictionary definitions”      Dictionary.com   defines philosophy as the rational investigation of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct.    American Heritage Dictionary   defines philosophy as the investigation of the nature, causes, or  principles of reality, knowledge, or values, based on logical reasoning rather than empirical methods.    Merriam-Webster Dictionary   defines philosophy as the analysis of the grounds of and concepts expressing fundamental beliefs such as reality and values. According to Professor Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (2008) philosophy asks the question “How it all fits together”?. For example, if you want to learn about the human body, take a course in physics or biology. If you want to learn about the human mind, take a course in psychology. But if you want to learn about how the mind and body are related, or how biology is related to psychology, then philosophy is for you! It has been remarked that you can study anything under the name of philosophy. Philosophy encompasses many subfields such as philosophy of law, of economics, of biology, of physics, of mathematics, of psychology, of art, of music, of literature, and so on. Any and all of these topics can  be studied in a philosophical way when one asks how they are related to each other in an overall world view. Philosophic study means the habit of always seeing an alternative. -William James    Chapter 1: Introduction 3 3 Generally, philosophers deal with speculative issues that are not subject to investigation through experimental tests. Hence, philosophy is more conceptual than science. However, like scientists,  philosophers formulate hypotheses which they attempt to answer though reasoning and evidence. This differentiates philosophy from poetry and mysticism, despite it not being a science. There is an attempt to divide philosophy according to geographical region. The broadest classification is dividing philosophy into the Western tradition and Eastern tradition. In this course, we will examine both these traditions though the division may be relatively arbitrary. Regardless of tradition, philosophers are always engaged in asking questions, finding answers to these question on many basic issues involving life. Branches of Philosophy The four main branches of philosophy are logic, epistemology, metaphysics, and ethics:    Metaphysics    is the study of the nature of things focusing on what exists in the world, what it is like and how it is ordered. Among the questions asked are”   o   What is a person? o   What makes a person the same through time?    o   Do people have minds? How do brains generate minds?    o   How is the mind related to the body?    o   Do people have free will? o   What is truth? o   What is beauty?    Epistemology is the study of knowledge itself and its srcin. It is primarily concerned with what we can know about the world and how we come to know it. Typical questions of concern in epistemology are: o   What is knowledge? o   Do we know anything at all? o   How do we know what we know? o   Can we be justified in claiming to know certain things?    Ethics   is the study of the nature of right and wrong, and good and evil, forming the foundations of morality, and the fine details of moral conduct. For example, a moral philosopher may ask whether or not a rape victim should All men by nature desire to know... It is owing to their wonder that men  both now begin and at first began to  philosophize. -Aristotle    Chapter 1: Introduction 4 4 have the right to get an abortion. Ethics is concerned with what we ought to do and what it would be best to do. The questions asked are: o   What is good? What makes actions or people good? o   What is right? What makes actions right? o   Is morality objective or subjective? o   How should I treat others?    Logic    is the exploration of the structure of argument and the extraction of knowledge from evidence. Logic is one of the primary tools philosophers use in their inquiries; the precision of logic helps them to cope with the subtlety of  philosophical problems and the often misleading nature of conversational language. Logicians ask such questions as: o   What constitutes good or bad reasoning? o   How do we determine whether a given piece of reasoning is good or bad? Some philosophers may be involved in a 5 th  branch of philosophy which is researching the works of other philosophers. These philosophers see great value in the texts of thinkers as far back as the ancient Greeks, and study these texts both for their  philosophical insight and enjoyment. The aim is to understand the way in which  people have answered such questions in the past. In studying the history of philosophy one explores the ideas of such Plato, Aristotle, Confucius, Kant, Rousseau, al-Farabi, Tagore and others. As you can already tell, the different branches of philosophy overlap one another. For example, a philosopher who is trying to figure out whether people ought to give everything they can spare to the poor is asking an ethical question  . In asking this question, he might wonder whether or not standards of right and wrong are built into the fabric of the universe, which is a metaphysical question  . If he claims that people are justified in answering that question either way, he is making an epistemological claim  . At all steps of his reasoning, he will want to employ logic   to ensure that he is minimising the chance of making an error in reasoning. He may very well look to some of the ethical writings of past philosophers   to see how the most powerful thinkers who came before him reasoned about the issue; i.e. giving to the poor. Aspects of each branch of philosophy can be studied in isolation, but  philosophical questions have a way of leading to other philosophical questions, to the  point that a full investigation of any particular problem is likely eventually to involve almost the whole of the philosophical enterprise. Philosophical questions arise in almost every disciplines. For example, the issue of ethics is of concern in disciplines such as economics, science, law, business and so forth. This is why philosophy also encompassed such areas as:    Philosophy of Law    Philosophy of Economics    Philosophy of Science    Philosophy of Education    Philosophy of History    Philosophy of Language    Philosophy of Feminism    Philosophy of Politics

Lit Review

Jul 23, 2017
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