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Chapter 5: Confucius and Mencius 1 This chapter C CCh hha aap ppt tte eer rr 5 55: :: C CCO OON NNF FFU UUC CCI IIU UUS SS A AAN NND DD M MME EEN NNC CCI IIU UUS SS This chapter discusses to famous Chinese philosophers who made significant contributions to Chinese education for nearly 2000 years. The Analects, the six classics and the six arts formed the basis of Confucianism which had implicati
    Chapter 5: Confucius and Mencius 1 CCChhhaaapppttteeer r r  555:::  CCCOOONNNFFFUUUCCCIIIUUUSSS AAANNNDDD MMMEEENNNCCCIIIUUUSSS   This chapter discusses to famous Chinese philosophers who made significant contributions to Chinese education for nearly 2000 years. The Analects, the six classics and the six arts formed the basis of Confucianism which had implications for government, moral development, teaching, family relationships and so forth. Mencius was a keen proponent of Confucius who wrote Mencius which had implications for the goals of education, politics, teachers and teaching. Chapter Outline Who is Confucius? His works Goals of education Curriculum Teaching and teachers Influence of Confucius Who is Mencius? His works Goals of education Moral curriculum Teachers and teaching methods Summary Key Terms References Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to:    Identify the goals of education according to Confucius    Justify the curriculum proposed by Confucius    Discuss the teaching-learning methods proposed by Confucius    List the goals of education according to Mencius    Explain the rationale for Mencius‟ ideas on the curriculum      Discuss the teaching-learning strategies proposed by Mencius Chapter 1: Philosophy & the Malaysian Philosophy of Education Chapter 2: Socrates, Plato & Aristotle Chapter 3: Al-Farabi and Ibnu Sina Chapter 4 : Jean Rousseau and John Locke Chapter 5: Confucius and Mencius Chapter 6: Paulo Freire and Friedrich Froebel Chapter 7: John Dewey Chapter 8: Rabindranath Tagore and Vivekananda Chapter 9: Other Philosophical Traditions    Chapter 5: Confucius and Mencius 2 WHO IS CONFUCIUS? Confucius (pronounced as conn-FYU-shuss in English) and in Chinese is called Kung Fu Tzu was born in 479 BC in Quyi in the principality of Lu (today‟s Qufu in Shandong Province). His father, a minor official, died when Confucius was still a child, leaving the family in poverty. When Confucius finished school, he went back to his home in Lu and became a teacher there. He tried to enter politics and became the director of public works in the city of Zhongdu, and then minister of security and justice for the principality of Lu when he was 50. When it did not work he quit and left the city. Confucius spent the rest of his life travelling from town to town around China with his disciples unsuccessfully expounding his political opinions and moral precepts to leaders. Often they did not like his ideas: once he was thrown in jail for five days! When he was 67, Confucius went back to Lu and spent his final years writing and teaching. Confucius took lifelong delight in learning as well as teaching, and lived to see his reputation as an accomplished polymath spread far and wide. Before his time, under the Zhou Dynasty, schooling took place within government offices and was dispensed by public officials. General education, the prerogative of the nobility, was denied to the common people, and there was no such thing as a full-time teaching  profession. Young aristocrats received a civil and military education based on the „six arts‟: rites, music, archery, chariot driving, calligraphy and mathematics. The end of the so- called Spring and Autumn Period, with which Confucius‟ life coincided, was marked by violent upheavals as Chinese society based on slave-ownership was transformed into a feudal society. The political and economic underpinning of „education for and by the administration‟ was collapsing and culture was acquiring a more popular base. In breaking the aristocratic monopoly of learning and setting up a private academy that was accessible to rich and poor alike, Confucius was moving with his times. „My teaching‟, he declared, „is open to everyone, without distinction.‟ He was in his 30s when he first accepted disciples; he took in 3,000 in all, seventy-two of whom progressed to complete mastery o f the „six arts‟. In scope, enrolment and quality of teaching, the school of Confucius was unique for its age;  both during and after its founder‟s lifetime and posthumously, it exerted a considerable influence in the political, economic, cultural, ethical and moral spheres. Confucius devoted his energies to this undertaking for almost half a century and his efforts were interrupted only by illness and death at the age of 72. Confucius (551  –   479) 5.1 LEARNING ACTIVITY Trace the life history of Confucius. Look up materials from the internet.    Chapter 5: Confucius and Mencius 3 HIS WORKS The sayings of Confucius were remembered by his followers and were later compiled in a book of Analects (sayings), perhaps having been expanded on in the meantime (see Figure 5.1). Through them we discover Confucius' notions of the virtues, i.e., the positive character traits, to which we should aspire. Foremost among these is filial piety, the respect which children owe to parents--and by extension, wives owe to husbands, sisters to brothers, and everyone to ancestors. When such virtue is cultivated in the home, it is supposed to carry over into one's relations in affairs of state as well. Other issues discussed in the Analects related to goodness,  being a gentlemen, religion, government, education, ritual and music. Figure 5.1 Confucius Analects GOALS OF EDUCATION    Confucius demonstrated that education plays a fundamental role in the development of society and of individuals alike. Not only does it offer a means of ensuring the supremacy of virtue; it can also alter human nature and improve it in qualitative terms.    By raising individual moral standards, it renders society in its entirety more virtuous: the kingdom is well administered, orderly and law-abiding, to the extent that all within it follow the path of righteousness.    Education should aim to raise the level of individual morality if dthe moral level of society is to be raised.    The teachers and political leaders of the feudal era were all imbued with these  principles; most of them emphasised that education had an improving effect on individuals, and promoted order and security throughout the land; hence it should be developed.    Chapter 5: Confucius and Mencius 4    Concern for education gradually became one of the great traditions of China‟s feudal society. The teacher‟s task is to determine what type of person he is to form.    Confucius denounced favouritism and the passing of office from one generation of nobles to the next that prevailed during his time. He recommended appointment according to merit and „promotion of the ablest‟ (  Analects , Zi Lu).    The goal of education was to produce capable individuals (  xiancai )  –   whom he also called  shi (gentlemen) or  junzi (men of quality)  –    who „combined competence with virtue‟ and whose subsequent careers in administration and government would bring about the ideal of a kingdom managed with integrity. „You  believe you have studied enough? Then take up a post in the civil service‟, he advised his disciples (  Analects , Zi Zhang).    This radical stand against the principle of the hereditary transmission of posts was reflected in the system of training and appointing officials that was later adopted in feudal society, and served as the theoretical basis for the selection  process introduced under the Han Dynasty, and later for the imperial examination procedure that would be followed throughout the Sui and Tang Dynasties and up to the fall of the Manchus; it was also central to the feudal education system as a whole.    Confucius stated that education was for all men, without exception (  Analects , Wei Ling gong). His pupils came from the lowest as well as the highest levels of society, and access to education was thereby broadened considerably.    Opening the doors of learning more widely, he hastened the development of general education in Ancient China, thus contributing both to political reform and to the dissemination of culture. CURRICULUM According to Confucius, the twin pillars of education should be moral instruction, which would have priority, and the imparting of knowledge. A) MORAL EDUCATION    Moral instruction, which had to take pride of place, since what was needed were individuals of outstanding virtue who would assist the prince in governing with integrity, thus became the basis of Confucian teaching. 5.2 LEARNING ACTIVITY a) Look up the  Analects from the internet for more details.  b) Comment on the aims of education according to Confucius.
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