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This chapter C CCh hha aap ppt tte eer rr 7 77: :: J JJO OOH HHN NN D DDE EEW WWE EEY YY This chapter discusses the works of John Dewey, a well-known American philosopher who led the progressive movement. He emphasised the need for students to learn by doing and to learn through inquiry. He set up an experimental school to try out his ideas. Chapter Outline Who is John Dewey? His Works Aims of
  CCChhhaaapppttteeer r r  777:::  JJJOOOHHHNNN DDDEEEWWWEEE Y Y Y  This chapter discusses the works of John Dewey, a well-known American philosopher who led the progressive movement. He emphasised the need for students to learn by doing and to learn through inquiry. He set up an experimental school to try out his ideas. Chapter Outline Who is John Dewey? His Works Aims of Education Progressivism The Dewey School References Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to:    Trace the life of John Dewey    Identify his works    Explain his view on education    Describe his experimental school Chapter 1: Philosophy & the Malaysian Philosophy of Education Chapter 2: Socrates, Plato & Aristotle Chapter 3: Al-Farabi and Ibnu Sina Chapter 4 : Jean Rousseau and John Locke Chapter 5: Confucius and Mencius Chapter 6: Paulo Freire and Froebel Chapter 7: John Dewey Chapter 8: Rabindranath Tagore and Vivekananda Chapter 9: Other Philosophical Traditions    Chapter 1: Introduction 2 WHO IS JOHN DEWEY? Dewey was born in 1859 in Burlington, Vermont in the United States of modest family srcins. He graduated from the University of Vermont and  became a high school teacher in Oil City, Pennsylvania and one year as a primary school teacher in a small town in Vermont. Later he received his PhD from John Hopkins University and in 1884 accepted an academic  position at the University of Michigan which he served until 1894 and joined the University of Chicago until 1904. Here he developed his philosophy of education and initiated the University of Chicago Laboratory School where he was able to experiment with beliefs about education and teaching. Dewey married twice, first with Alice Chipman. They had six children. His second wife was Roberta Lowitz Grant. In 1899, John Dewey was elected president of the American Psychological Association. From 1904 until his retirement in 1930 he was professor of philosophy at  both Columbia University and Columbia University's Teachers College. In 1905 he  became president of the American Philosophical Association.Dewey continued to write and speak about intellectual and social issues until shortly before his death on June 1, 1952. John Dewey (1859  –   1952)  Chapter 1: Introduction 3 HIS WORKS John Dewey wrote hundreds of articles and dozens of books in his lifetime. The following are some examples: In this book (written in 1916), Dewey wrote about his  philosophy of education. He argued that learning was active and unfortunately schooling was restrictive. His idea was that children came to school to do things and live in a community which gave them real, guided experiences which fostered their capacity to contribute to society. For example, Dewey believed that students should be involved in real-life tasks and challenges: mathematics could be learnt via learning proportions in cooking or figuring out how long it would take to get from one place to another by mule history could be learnt by experiencing how people lived, geography, what the climate was like, and how plants and animals grew, were important subjects In this book (written in 1933), Dewey explains the general process of human thinking. It compares deductive reasoning   with inductive reasoning  . The two forms of reasoning are essential to all humans, but few have ever taken the time to understand these two types of thinking. Both deductive and inductive reasoning are important, and they are both opposite approaches for humans to draw conclusions. Deductive reasoning starts with a theory to push us to look for facts, while inductive reasoning starts with observations and pushes us to form a theory. Experience and Education  is a small book by Dewey that gives a clear and quick overview of his ideal approach to teaching and education. In it he compares traditional and progressive education, discusses the relationship of experience and learning, and theorises on ways to implement effective experiences in educational environments.  Chapter 1: Introduction 4 AIMS AND GOALS OF EDUCATON    Dewey argues that there are two major conflicting schools of thought on school curriculum and teaching: o   The first school of thought  focuses almost solely on the subject matter and content to be taught. He argued that the major flaw with this school of thought is that the student is inactive. The “child is “the child is simply the immature being who is to be matured; he is the superfic ial being who is to be deepened” (Dewey, 1902, p.  13). o   The second school of thought  content is presented in a way that allows the student to relate the information to prior experiences , thus deepening the connection with this new knowledge. Dewey strongly advocated the second school of thought if education is to be most effective.    Children must not be treated as miniature adults  and education seeking to lead them to become adults. They have their own rights and they should enjoy their childhood and not to robbed of their childhood.    Students should participate in meaningful projects , learning by doing, and solve problems. This not only facilitates the acquisition and retention of knowledge but fosters the right character traits such as unselfishness, helpfulness, critical intelligence, individual initiative, etc.    Dewey saw it important to integrate the school with society . Students should  be exposed to actual problems of life. For example, the school could be a miniature version of society where equality and consideration for all would  prevail.    The school should be open and completely free  through application of the principles and practices of democracy  where all are equal  without any restrictions or segregation on account of colour, race, creed, national srcin, sex or social status. 8.1   LEARNING ACTIVITY a)   Trace the life of John Dewey  b)   What were some of the books he? What were they about?
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