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Chap8.Tagore.Vivekananda.MEd.pdf

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T TTA AAG GGO OOR RRE EE a aan nnd dd V VVI IIV VVE EEK KKA AAN NNA AAN NND DDA AA i Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to:  describe briefly who is Rabindranath Tagore  discuss Tagore‟s objectives of establishing his school  explain Tagore‟s views on education  briefly describe who is Swami Vivekananda  evaluate Vivekananda‟s views on education Chapter Outline
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    TTTAAAGGGOOORRREEE aaannnddd VVVIIIVVVEEEKKKAAANNNAAANNNDDDAAA  i   Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to:    describe briefly who is Rabindranath Tagore    discuss Tagore‟s objectives of establishing his school      explain Tagore‟s views on education       briefly describe who is Swami Vivekananda    evaluate Vivekananda‟s views on education   Chapter Outline    Who is Rabindranath Tagore?    His Works    Tagore‟s View on Education      The experimental school    Who is Swami Vivekananda?    Vivekananda‟s view on education References This chapter discusses the view of two Indian philosopher: Tagore and Vivekananda. Tagore was most concerned about the poor conditions of rural people in India and  proposed that education should be used to change their lives. He tried out his ideas on education in an experimental school. Vivekananda was also concerned about the condition of the people under British rule. He argued that the people should be educated so as to improve their lives. He viewed education as “manifestion”.      Rabindranath Tagore (1861  –   1914) Rabindranath Tagore was born on 7 May 1861 in Calcutta, India. His family was involved in business and benefited from the growing power of the British East India Company. He was born at the time the British were consolidating their power over India. Rabindranath was the fourteenth child and grew up in family in which his siblings were poets, musicians, playwrights and novelists. Rabindranath attended Bengali-medium school which developed his love for the language and literature. He was also sent to a number of English-speaking schools. He gradually withdrew from formal schooling when he was around 14 years old. The remainder of his education was carried out at home through his own personal efforts and with the help of tutors in various subjects. He also had lessons from  professionals in wrestling, music and drawing. When Rabindranath was 12, his father took him to Santiniketan, the meditation centre and during their brief stay there, his father taught him Sanskrit, astronomy, English literature and the Hindu scriptures. After these lessons were over, Rabindranath was free to roam among the fields and forests. This closeness with nature had an impact on his life and his views on education. In 1878, when he was 17, he was sent to London by his father to qualify for the Indian Civil Service or as a lawyer. He took his matriculation examination and then  joined University College, London. He came to like his lessons in English literature, and  became exposed to British social life and Western music, both of which he enjoyed. But he returned home suddenly after some eighteen months without completing his education. However, he did gain the impression that human nature was perhaps the same everywhere. Back in India he continued with his personal education and his creative writing and music. Tagore married at the age of 23. He became aware of his talent as a poet between 1884 and 1890 wrote many poems, plays, article and novels. When Tagore took over the management of the farms and estates of his family, he realised something must be done to alleviate the poverty of the farmers and rural folks. He was convinced that poverty stricken people do not understand their plight and thus are mistreated by those in power, such as the landlord, policeman, money-lender and so forth. People should first discover the bonds that holds them together and the only way to bring about this realisation is through education. He emphasised the need for self-reliance, local initiatives, local leadership and the cooperative way of life as forming the basis of reorganizing Indi a‟s fragmented rural society. According to him “poverty springs from disunity and wealth from cooperation” (Namashima Rao, 1992)   His Works Who is Rabindranath Tagore?   Tagore was a prolific writer and among his works are the following: Fiction:    The Home and the World    The Hungry Stones and other Stories Non-Fiction :    Sadhana: The Realisation of Life    Creative Unity Poetry:    Gitanjali    Fruit Gathering    The Crescent Moon Plays:    Chitra    The King of the Dark Chamber 8.1 LEARNING ACTIVITY a) Briefly describe the life of Tagore.  b) What was his main concern about the state of Indian society who were under British rule? c) Check from the internet the poems and stories by Tagore    Tagore’s Views on Education   Tagore did not write a treatise on education, but his ideas on education may be gleaned from his writings and educational experiments in the schools he established. The way he was educated in which he was brought close to nature, had an impact on his views on education. With this realisation, Tagore turned his attention and thoughts towards the problems of education. On the Curriculum in Schools:    Tagore considered lack of education to be the main obstacle in the way of India‟s  progress and at the root of all its problems. The prevailing, colonial education system he found unsatisfactory since the only objective it appeared to serve was to produce clerks to work in government offices and British businesses in India    He stressed the importance of science, technology and agricultural sciences, as well as training in village crafts. Without these, it was not possible to revive the  poor condition of life in rural India.    He felt that both spiritual and scientific knowledge are equally important. Science without constraint will lead to endless desire for material goods and well-being, and the meaningless pursuit of the instruments of war and power leading to suppression of the weaker by the stronger.    He suggested teaching of history and geography to promote objectivity in thinking and to facilitate desirable social change.    It was necessary, Tagore felt, to make the younger generation aware of their national cultural heritage and to grasp its significance for them. At the same time, education should bring children face to face with the cultures of other countries and persuade them to learn from them. On Medium of Instruction:    He was not in favour of using English as the medium of instruction because it hindered assimilation of what was taught, and kept education confined to urban centres and the upper classes. Thus, if the vast rural masses were to benefit, it was absolutely essential to switch over to the use of mother-tongue at all levels

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