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Civil law (or civilian law) is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of late Roman law, and whose most prevalent feature is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law. Civil Law, in contrast to Common Law, is codified. Countries with civil law systems have comprehensive, continuously updated legal codes that specify all matters capable of being brought before a court, the applicable proce
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  Civil law (or civilian law) is a legal system srcinating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of late Roman law, and whose most prevalent feature is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law. Civil Law  , in contrast to Common Law, is codified  . Countries with civil law systems have comprehensive, continuously updated legal codes that specify all matters capable of being brought before a court, the applicable procedure, and the appropriate punishment for each offense. Such codes distinguish between different categories of law: substantive law establishes which acts are subject to criminal or civil prosecution, procedural law establishes how to determine whether a particular action constitutes a criminal act, and penal law establishes the appropriate penalty. In a civil law system, the judge’s role is to establish the facts of the case and to apply the provisions of the applicable code. Though the judge often brings the formal charges, investigates the matter, and decides on the case, he or she works within a framework established by a comprehensive, codified set of laws. The judge’s decision is consequently less crucial in shaping civil law than the decisions of legislators and legal scholars who draft and interpret the codes. What the civil law is:   ã   A comprehensive system  of rules and principles usually arranged in codes and easily accessible to citizens and jurists. ã   A well organized system  that favors cooperation, order, and predictability, based on a logical and dynamic taxonomy developed from Roman law and reflected in the structure of the codes. ã   An adaptable system , with civil codes avoiding excessive detail and containing general clauses that permit adaptation to change. ã   A primarily legislative system , yet leaving room for the judiciary to adjust rules to social change and new needs, by way of interpretation and creative jurisprudence. Some salient features of the civil law:   ã   Clear expression of rights and duties , so that remedies are self-evident. ã   Simplicity and accessibility to the citizen , at least in those jurisdictions   where it is codified. ã    Advance disclosure of rules , silence in the code to be filled based on equity, general principles, and the spirit of the law. ã   Richly developed and to some extent transnational academic doctrine  inspiring the legislature and the judiciary. Where we find the civil law:   ã   In Continental Europe , where most jurisdictions have civil codes. In Great Britain, Scotland has retained an uncodified form of the civil law. Even when they have civil codes, Scandinavian countries are not regarded as civil law jurisdictions. ã   In North America , civil codes are found in Louisiana and Quebec. ã   In Central and South America , almost all countries have civil codes. ã   In  Asia , many countries have received the civil law and have civil codes, such as Indonesia, Japan, Kyrgyzstan, and Lebanon. ã   Countries of  Africa  that once were colonized by continental European nations have kept many aspects of the civil law traditions. The Civil Code of Egypt has a  significant influence in Africa and the Middle East, whilst the Roman-Dutch law applied in South Africa was never codified. ã   Some remnants of the civil law traditions are to be found on some Pacific islands , especially in the French territories of New Caledonia or Tahiti. In mixed jurisdictions , chiefly found in America, Africa, and Asia, but also in Europe, the civil law coexists with other legal traditions such as the common law, customary law, or Islamic law. Stare decisis –  the same judgement in similar cases, common law Obitec dictis –  circumstances Ratio decidendi- even If you are angry, you cannot kill other person
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