Cocoa Sector Analysis Ver 2.0

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Cocoa Sector
  Cocoa Sectoral Analysis Kamal Raju Gotte 24B Rajesh A. Jaddu 38B Shreyash Agarwal 42C  History Cocoa bean is the dried and fully fermented fatty seed of Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids and cocoa butter are extracted. They are the basis of chocolate. The genus Theobroma srcinated millions of years ago in South America, to the east of the Andes. Theobroma has been divided into twenty-two species of which T. cacao is the most widely known. It is the Maya who have provided tangible evidence of cacao as a domesticated crop. Archaeological evidence in Costa Rica indicates that cacao was drunk by Maya traders as early as 400 BC. The first outsider to drink chocolate was Christopher Columbus, who reached Nicaragua in 1502 searching for a sea route to the spices of the East. But it was Hernan Cortés, leader of an expedition in 1519 to the Aztec empire, who returned to Spain in 1528 bearing the Aztec recipe for xocoatl (chocolate drink) with him.  Physiological conditions ã The natural habitat of the cocoa tree is in the lower storey of the evergreen rainforest ã climatic factors, temperature and rainfall are important in encouraging optimum growth Climate Conditions ã Cocoa plants responds well to relatively high temperatures ã Maximum annual average of 30-32 C and a minimum average of 18-21 C Temperature ã An annual rainfall level of between 1,500mm and 2,000mm is generally preferred ã Dry spells where rainfall is less than 100mm per month should not exceed three months Rainfall ã Hot and humid atmosphere essential for the optimum development of cocoa ã Cocoa producing countries relative humidity is generally high, often as much as 100% during the day, falling to 70-80% during the night Humidity ã Cocoa tree makes optimum use of any light available ã Has been traditionally grown under shade; shading is indispensable in a cocoa tree's early years Light and shade  Cocoa tree varieties Criollos dominated the market until the middle of the eighteenth century but today only a few, if any, pure Criollo trees remain. Forastero is a large group containing cultivated, semi-wild and wild populations of which the Amelonado populations are the most extensively planted. Amelonado varieties include, Comum in Brazil, West African Amelonado in Africa, Cacao Nacional in Ecuador and Matina or Ceylan in Costa Rica and Mexico. Trinitario populations are considered to belong to the Forasteros although they are descended from a cross between Criollo and Forastero. Trinitario planting started in Trinidad and spread to Venezuela and then was planted in Ecuador, Cameroon, Samoa, Sri Lanka, Java and Papua New Guinea.
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