Marketing

Combating child abuse and neglect in the Netherlands. Mariska de Baat Peter van der Linden Klaas Kooijman Caroline Vink

Categories
Published
of 18
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Description
Combating child abuse and neglect in the Netherlands Mariska de Baat Peter van der Linden Klaas Kooijman Caroline Vink December Netherlands Youth Institute All rights reserved. Nothing appearing
Transcript
Combating child abuse and neglect in the Netherlands Mariska de Baat Peter van der Linden Klaas Kooijman Caroline Vink December 2011 Netherlands Youth Institute All rights reserved. Nothing appearing in this publication (information, pictures, images) may be copied or reproduced or stored in data files, irrespective in which manner. Neither electronical nor digital, mechanical, photographic or any other way, unless explicitly permission has been given in writing. This publication is financed by the Daphne programme of the European Commission trough the project: Prevent and Combat Child Abuse: What Works? An overview of regional approaches, exchange and research Author(s) Mariska de Baat, Peter van der Linden, Klaas Kooijman en Caroline Vink Netherlands Youth Institute PO Box DE Utrecht The Netherlands T: W: & E: 2 Content Content... 3 Introduction... 5 Background... 5 Set-up of the report... 5 Chapter 1: Definition, policy and child welfare system Definition of child abuse and neglect Prevalence and attitudes towards child abuse and neglect Structure and main principles of the governmental policy Legislation on child abuse and neglect Child welfare system Summary and conclusions Chapter 2: Universal and preventive services Universal services Governmental strategies and actions Involved people and organizations Products and results Research results Good practices Bottlenecks Summary and conclusions Chapter 3: Detection, reporting and stopping of child abuse and neglect Governmental strategies and actions Involved people and organizations Products and results Research results Good practices Bottlenecks Summary and conclusions Chapter 4: Treatment services Governmental strategies and actions Involved people and organizations Products and results Research results Good practices Bottlenecks Summary and conclusions Chapter 5: Integrating services Initiatives developed for integrating services Confidentiality and data protection Products and results Research results Good practices Bottlenecks Summary and conclusions Chapter 6: Education and training of professionals Minimal educational requirements Initiatives developed for the professionalization of professionals Products and results Research results Good practices Bottlenecks 6.7 Summary and conclusions Summary and conclusions Glossary References Introduction In the Netherlands, every year more than children and young people between the ages of 0 and 18 are abused in one or more ways. It is estimated that between 40 and 80 children die of the consequences. The Dutch Government finds it unacceptable that so many young people experience violence in their home situation. Because of the serious effects of child abuse, the Dutch government focuses on the prevention and early recognition and halting of child abuse. This report describes the national and regional strategies in policy and practice in addressing child abuse in the Netherlands. Background The Netherlands Youth Institute has been granted a two-year project ( ) in the framework of the Daphne III programme: prevent and combat violence against children, young people and women and to protect victims and groups at risk. The aim of the project is to generate relevant knowledge on current strategies for the prevention of child abuse and neglect in Europe. It will focus on interventions and strategies that are targeted at preventing and the treatment of child abuse. It will compare the strategies of 5 European countries. This report is part of the first workstream, in which the national approaches of combatting child abuse and neglect in the five countries are described and compared to each other. The output of the project will be a manual with data on what works in preventing and the treatment of child abuse and it also has a research strand with the experiences of parents and children regarding their experiences with programmes. The project is a collaboration with the Swedish Orebro regional council, the Hungarian Family child Youth Association, the German Youth Institute, CESIS from Portugal and Verweij-Jonker from the Netherlands. Set-up of the report This report contains six chapters. The first chapter describes the definition and prevalence of child abuse and neglect, the child welfare system in the Netherlands and the main governmental policy on child abuse and neglect. Chapter two, three and four describe the continuum of care: from universal and preventive services, to the detection, reporting and stopping of child abuse and neglect and the treatment services. Each of these chapters contain seven paragraphs, they are about: governmental strategies and actions, involved people and organizations, products, results, good practices, bottlenecks and a summary and conclusion. Chapter five is about the integrating of services and chapter six describes the professionalization of professionals in the Netherlands. We conclude with an overall summary and conclusion. Do you want more information on children and youth policy, practice and provisions in the Netherlands? 5 Chapter 1: Definition, policy and child welfare system 1.1 Definition of child abuse and neglect In the Netherlands, child abuse is defined as every form of threatening or violent behaviour towards minors of a physical, psychological or sexual nature. This behaviour is forced on minors actively or passively by parents or other persons towards whom minors feel dependent and lack freedom. This behaviour (threatens to) cause serious harm in the form of physical or psychological damage. This definition is entered in the Act on Youth Care, which was accepted on the 1 st of January In the Netherlands the following kinds of child abuse are distinguished, which occur in different combinations: - Physical abuse: beating, kicking, biting, pinching, scratching, dropping, inflicting burns, shaking (shaken baby syndrome) and Münchhausen Syndrome by Proxy. - Physical and psychological neglect: withholding care and attention and therefore ignoring basic needs of love, warmth, security and support. - Mental or emotional abuse: behaviour that reflects rejection and hostility. - Sexual abuse: forcing sexual acts by using the dominant power position. - Being a witness to domestic violence: growing up in a family in which parenting occurs in an unsafe situation, which may seriously affect the developmental process of children. 1.2 Prevalence and attitudes towards child abuse and neglect The most recent figures on child abuse in the Netherlands are taken from two studies that are very different in their set-up. The first study (Alink et al., 2011) consisted of two different studies. The first study was a replication of the first Dutch national incidence study (van IJzendoorn et al, 2007) and used more than 1,100 carefully selected informants ( sentinels ) across all major regions of the Netherlands. The informants were professionals working with children, and recruited from various health care, child day care and educational institutions in society. The informants were instructed in the use of a uniform registration system for child abuse and neglect, based on detailed definitions and descriptions of the various forms of maltreatment. The overall definition of child abuse and neglect was derived from Dutch law and being a witness to domestic violence was excluded. Specific descriptions were taken from coding forms used in the American National Incidence Studies. In addition, the formal registrations of all Advice and Reporting Centres on Child Abuse ( Advies- en Meldpunten Kindermishandeling, AMK) during 2010 were included in the final estimates of the prevalence rates. The study states that children and young people (3,4 % of all 0- to 18-year olds) experienced child abuse in that year. In most cases there is physical or emotional neglect (23,8 and 35,9 per cent). The results are a reflection of the cases of child abuse in Children who experienced child abuse before 2010were excluded from this study. The study by Alink et al (2011) also contained a self report study among secondary school students aged 12 to 17. This was a replication of an earlier study by Lamers-Winkelman et al (2007). Almost 2000 pupils took part in the study by completing the unpleasant and nasty incidents questionnaire (Dutch: Vragenlijst Vervelende en Nare Gebeurtenissen; VVNG). The study was carried out across the country, at a total of 28 randomly selected secondary schools. In the study child abuse is understood to mean: behavioural acts towards children which may be regarded as serious forms of physical/psychological violence, neglect or sexual abuse. The exposure of children to serious violence between parents is also considered to be a serious threat to their safety and, as such, a form of child abuse. The study show that 34,6 per cent of the pupils have experienced some form of child abuse, 18,7 per cent of which during the past year. Extrapolation to the population of pupils between the ages 12 and 17 results in a number of victims of child abuse in The second study, carried out on request of Augeo foundation by TNO Quality of Life, examined whether the Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) questionnaire of Felitti et al. (1998) can also be used in the Netherlands (Kuiper, Dusseldorp and Vogels; 2010). The questionnaire was translated and data were collected in a representative sample of approximately 2,200 respondents from the Dutch population, partly by internet and partly by a mail survey. The results show that one out of six adults (17%) is physically abused in childhood. Almost ten per cent has had bruises or injuries due to hitting by a parent. Next to this, almost one fifth (19%) of the adults is mentally abused in their childhood by being called, belittled or humiliated. The relatively small group of people with an ACE score of four or higher contains more than 25% of all people with depressed mood, alcoholism and COPD. 6 Assuming some causal relationships, this could imply that, when adverse childhood experiences would be treated effectively, the number of people with depressed mood or alcoholism could drop significantly. Attitudes towards child abuse and neglect In 2010 a study is carried out about the attitude of citizens from the Netherlands between 16 and 70 years towards child abuse and neglect (Motivaction, 2010). The purpose of the study was to gain an insight into thoughts, fears, doubts and thresholds that citizens experience in signalling and reporting suspicions of child abuse and neglect. 831 people filled in a web-based questionnaire. The study shows that the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in the Netherlands is highly underestimated. The number of children that annually become victim of child abuse and neglect, is on average underestimated by half ( in stead of more than ). The chance that child abuse and neglect actually occurs in ones own neighbourhood or family, is also estimated low. Nevertheless, most people agree that child abuse and neglect can occur in everyone s surrounding. Therefore, the dominant attitude seems to be: I can not exclude that child abuse and neglect occurs in my surrounding, but I do not expect it to occur. There s no research showing the results of the law to prevent the use of physical or psychological violence in the upbringing of children on the attitude of citizens towards child abuse and neglect. 1.3 Structure and main principles of the governmental policy Child and youth policy and the combat against Child Abuse and Neglect was high on the political agenda in the Netherlands in the period During a longer period of time there are a number of distinguishing characteristics in child and youth policy. Firstly, since the late eighties, a large number of tasks formerly managed by central government have been transferred to the local and provincial administrative level. This decentralisation is intended to facilitate local and provincial authorities to find solutions to local issues, needs and demands. Secondly, a distinction is made between general and preventive youth policy for which the local authorities are responsible and the child and youth social care system, the responsibility of which lies with the provinces. Local preventive youth policy includes education, leisure time and health care. It also includes specific preventive tasks, such as access to help and care coordination (with special focus on parenting support), that are offered by youth and family centres. The child and youth social care system covers all forms of care available to parents and children in order to support in the case of serious development and parenting problems (www.youthpolicy.nl). Nevertheless, there will be a lot changes, because of the new government. Action plan against child abuse The Dutch Government finds it unacceptable that more than young people experience violence in their home situation. Because of the serious effects of child abuse, the Dutch government focuses on the prevention and early recognition and combatting of child abuse. An important goal of the former Ministry for Youth and Families was the realization of a fit approach of child abuse based on prevention and treatment methods that have proved to be effective. In 2007 the ministry designed an action plan for actions against child abuse ( ) as well as appointed a national steering committee. The action plan was called: Children Safe at Home. Due to this action plan, the former Ministry for Youth and Families supported the national implementation of the RAAK approach through the Netherlands Youth Institute, initiated a public campaign, supervised the implementation of a legally obliged reporting code and promoted the use of action protocols for tracing and persecution. The ministry also informed and deliberated with other departments active in the field of domestic violence and particular forms of child abuse. The Ministry for Safety and Justice is responsible for the policy on domestic violence. In 2002 they launched the action plan Private violence Public affairs. Right now there s a discussion in politics to integrate the policies regarding child abuse and domestic violence with each other. National implementation of the RAAK approach The RAAK approach aims to develop a fit and joint approach of collaborating professionals in the same region in order to generate a more alert and more effective reaction to suspicions of child abuse and to work on different forms of prevention more specifically. Between 2003 and 2006 the approach was tested in four regions. The results were such that the government ordered to apply the approach nationally. 7 The 37 centre municipalities who are working on the realization of regional centres for Youth and Families formally agreed on regional collaborations around child abuse and the appointment of regional coordinators. We call them the RAAK regions. The Netherlands Youth Institute supported the regions throughout the implementation of the RAAK approach. This was executed in the period The core of the RAAK approach is that caregivers, neighbours, friends and acquaintances, professionals in education, shelters, health care, welfare and the police recognize the signs of child abuse at an earlier stage and work together more effectively to prevent or end child abuse. Consequently the RAAK approach promotes agreements between local and regional partners as well as training and education of professionals. The added value of the regional approach according to RAAK is that the need and urgency of actions against child abuse and parenting support will appear on the agenda of governments, politics and organizations. The focus on child abuse will also reveal the limitations of the existing institutes and add to their readiness to collaborate more effectively. To support the RAAK approach a framework for a fit approach of child abuse is determined beforehand (Hermanns, 2008). The framework has to contain a care continuum with activities on the following levels: - Universal prevention: in the shape of awareness campaigns, information on parenting and child abuse and media attention: aimed at all parents, professional carers and children. - Selective prevention: in the shape of individual or group meetings and training programmes: aimed at defined risk groups with a higher occurrence of child abuse, for example teen mothers. - Indicated intervention in the shape of individual coaching: aimed at individuals with personal characteristics which are known to add to the risk of child abuse. - Early intervention: in the shape of individual support and coaching; aimed at individuals who are displaying early signs of child abuse. - Diagnostics and intervention in the shape of reporting, formal care and criminal or civil legal measures; aimed at ending the abuse as soon as ultimately possible. The implementation of the RAAK approach ( ) consisted of several activities. The 37 RAAK regions received money from the former ministry for Youth and Family to appoint a regional coordinator. The regional coordinator appointed a regional steering group. Every region started with an inventory of the existing activities regarding child abuse and neglect: the starting picture. Hereby, they used a checklist of the Netherlands Youth Institute, based on the framework for a fit approach of child abuse (Hermanns, 2008). Every region determined his own priorities of the regional working plan, based on the outcomes of this inventory. The working plans should at least meet the two main goals: - Every professional working with children has enough knowledge and skills to recognize child abuse and neglect, and depending on their function, also to stop child abuse and neglect and/or treat the consequences. - Every professional works in accordance with the regional action protocol. Who does what and when after a sign of child abuse and neglect is described in this protocol. To meet these goals, every region developed a Starting picture, a working plan, an education and training plan and a regional action protocol. The Netherlands Youth Institute supported the regions with the following activities: - The Netherlands Youth Institute appointed seven implementation advisors who support the regional coordinators. - The Netherlands Youth Institute developed a checklist for the first inventory: the Starting picture. The checklist is based on the theoretical framework for a fit approach of child abuse (Hermanns, 2008). - The Netherlands Youth Institute developed and disseminated descriptions of competences of professionals and quality criteria of education and training. The competences are about what knowledge, skills and attitude professionals and volunteers need to have. The quality criteria name important aspects of good training. A national overview of training programmes on child abuse and neglect is published on the website of the Netherlands Youth Institute to increase the reach of training programs. 8 - The Netherlands Youth Institute developed a sample protocol for the regional action protocols (which describes the different roles of the partners once a case of child abuse is reported). The sample protocol contains three levels: working together in policy, working together in practice and implementation. The sample protocol can be used to evaluate the existing agreements about working together. Figure 1: national implementation of the RAAK approach New government On the 14th of October 2010 a new Dutch government started. The ministry of Youth and Families does not exist anymore. Some of its policy documents are still running, also in It remains to be seen how these policy documents and the underlying projects will continue after With the arrival of the new government, youth policy is one of the main responsibilities of the State Secretary, under the minister for Health, Welfare and Sport. The coalition agreement outlines several intentions of the new government in this domain. For example, there wi
Search
Related Search
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks