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Competence Ex Coaching Model

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competence, executive coaching
   S A  J  o ur n al   of  I  n d  u s  t  r i   al  P  s  y  c h  ol   o g y Tydskrif vir BedryfsielkundeOriginal Research A r  t  i   c l   e #  8  3 7  (page number not for citation purposes)  A competence executive coaching model A competence   executive   coAching   model Authors: Pieter Koortzen 1 Rudolf M. Oosthuizen 2 Afliations: 1 Department of Industrial Psychology and People Management, University of Johannesburg, South Africa 2 Department of Industrial and Organisational Psychology, University of South Africa, South Africa Correspondence to:  Pieter Koortzen email: Postal address: Department of Industrial Psychology and People Management, University of Johannesburg,South Africa Keywords: training and development needs; consulting; planning; implementation and evaluation; interventions; competencies; coaches Dates: Received: 08 June 2009Accepted: 04 Mar. 2010Published: 19 July 2010 How to cite this article: Koortzen, P., & Oosthuizen, R. (2010). A competence executive coaching model. SA  Journal of Industrial Psychology/SA Tydskrif vir Bedryfsielkunde, 36 (1), Art. #837, 11 pages. DOI: 10.4102/sajip.v36i1.837  This article is availableat: © 2010. The Authors.Licensee: OpenJournalsPublishing. This workis licensed under theCreative CommonsAttribution License. 1 ABSTRACT Orientation:  Psychologists in industry are increasingly required to provide executive coaching services in their organisations or as part of their consulting services. An evaluation of coaching models as well as the development needs of individuals being trained as coaches, both locally and internationally, has led the authors to believe that there is a need for a competence executive coaching model. Research purpose:  The purpose of this article is to address the training and development needs of these consulting psychologists by presenting a competence executive coaching model for the planning, implementation and evaluation of executive coaching interventions. Research design, approach and method:  The study was conducted while one of the authors was involved in teaching doctoral students in consulting psychology and executive coaching, specically in the USA. The approach involved a literature review of executive coaching models and a qualitative study using focus groups to develop and evaluate the competence executive coaching model. Main ndings:  The literature review provided scant evidence of competence executive coaching models and there seems to be a specic need for this in the training of coaches in South Africa. Hence the model that was developed is an attempt to provide trainers with a structured model for the training of coaches. Contribution/value-add:  The uniqueness of this competence model is not only described in terms of the six distinct coaching intervention phases, but also the competencies required in each. Vol. 36 No. 1 Page 1 of 11 INTRODUCTION Numerous publications on the concepts of coaching and executive coaching have been published in the last ten years (Killburg & Diedrich, 2007; Levinson, 2009; Palmer & Whybrow, 2007). Although a great deal has been written on this topic, the body of knowledge still seems to be unintegrated and leaves some psychologists entering the eld somewhat unsure and confused about the unique nature of executive coaching. Similarly, many different coaching models are presented in the literature, which may exacerbate the confusion. An evaluation of coaching models as well as the development needs of individuals being trained as coaches, locally and internationally, has led the authors to believe that there is a need for a competence executive coaching model. A review of current models, which is presented later in the article, focuses mostly on the tasks involved in a coaching process without describing the competences (outcomes) and the assessment criteria (criteria of success) in each phase. A competence model, however, can be used to describe the coaching process, the various competences and the assessment criteria with which trainers can determine the effectiveness of an executive coaching training programme and coaches can also evaluate their own performance. The goal of this article is therefore to describe the development and evaluation of a competence executive coaching model. As a point of departure it may be valuable to distinguish this concept from other related concepts, which may be more familiar to practising psychologists. Consulting psychologists, in particular, may already provide services that include mentoring, facilitation, consultation and counselling and may consider adding executive coaching to the list (Killburg & Diedrich, 2007; Levinson, 2009). In order to develop and describe such a competence model, executive coaching should rst be distinguished from other interventions such as facilitation and counselling. Executive coaching should also be dened, the roles and services of executive coaches claried and the prole, competencies and qualities (characteristics) analysed. This article also describes and evaluates existing models. The question can therefore be asked how executive coaching is different from the above-mentioned concepts. Mentor relationships are usually informal relationships that are based on proximity, common experience and the chemistry between the mentor and protégé (Torrance, 1984; Underhill, 2007). Mentors are usually older, seasoned professionals who take newer professionals under their wings. These mentors often worked in positions similar to those of the new leaders and are therefore able to provide information, guidance and encouragement relating specically to the job. Douglas and McCauley (1999) argue that although one-on-one mentoring programmes may have advantages, they are frequently in conict with the organisational culture. They also believe that mentoring programmes are not adequately supported by organisations when they are not part of a larger management development strategy. In response to these criticisms, the literature suggests that organisations have begun to implement alternative developmental programmes, which include executive coaching (Torrance, 1984; Underhill, 2007). It is believed that executive coaches may be able to provide a wider range of services to the coachee, which are not limited to specialist functional knowledge and which are aligned with the organisation’s broader developmental strategy and culture. Increasing dialogue between organisations representing coaching and mentoring, which has been stimulated in Europe by the European Mentoring and Coaching Council, is starting to break down some of these articial barriers. It is becoming clearer that coaching and mentoring need to be dened  Original ResearchKoortzen & OosthuizenSA Tydskrif vir Bedryfsielkunde    S   A   J  o  u  r  n  a   l  o   f   I  n   d  u  s   t  r   i  a   l   P  s  y  c   h  o   l  o  g  y    A  r   t   i  c   l  e   #   8   3   7 (page number not for citation purposes) 2 Vol. 36 No. 1 Page 2 of 11 differently in different contexts and that this is a potential strength as much as a current weakness. Obviously there are still many dogmatic statements about the distinctions between coaching and mentoring, but it is increasingly accepted that  both coaching and mentoring may, in specic contexts: ã  be relatively directive or non-directive ã require and draw upon the helper’s experience ã  be of long or short duration ã involve giving advice ã work with goals set by the learner or for the learner ã deal with signicant transitions the learner wishes to make ã address broad personal growth ambitions (Clutterbuck, 2008). Koortzen and Cilliers (2002) conceptualise facilitation from a person-centred approach as a process of providing an open and trusting climate where opportunities for learning can take place. In using the core conditions of respect, realness and empathy, the exploration of thoughts, feelings and behaviours are able to be facilitated, which leads to personal growth and ways to change behaviour in order to become a more fully functioning or self-actualised person. From this description it is clear that from time to time, executive coaches may assume the role as facilitator, but the role of executive coach is far broader. While the facilitator role may be appropriate in addressing personal development needs, other roles include educator/trainer, advisor and mentor. Consultants often nd themselves in situations that could  best be described as ‘coaching’ (Killburg & Diedrich, 2007). A client denes the situation as one in which he or she wants individual help to work on a personal issue, or a manager asks the consultant to work with an individual to improve job performance or overcome some developmental deciencies. From this point of view, the consultant’s job may be much  broader than that of the coach in the sense that the client system  is dened as more than the sum of the individual coaching projects in which members may be engaged. The degree of overlapping between coaching and consulting depends on who initiated the request for coaching, who is being coached, the role for which they are being coached and the issues for which they are being coached (Schein, 2005, 2006).Three fundamentally different roles that the consultant can play in any client relationship need to be distinguished: the provider of expert information, the diagnostician and prescriber of remedies and the process consultant whose focus is on helping the client to help himself or herself (Schein, 1969, 1987, 1988, 1999). In all of these roles, which would include coaching, the overarching goal is to be helpful  to the immediate client and mindful of the impact of interventions on the larger client system and community. The consultant must have the ability to move among these roles freely, but he or she must begin in the process mode. In order to ascertain in what way expertise or diagnosis and prescription are relevant to the client’s needs, the consultant must establish a ‘helping relationship’ with the client, in which the latter can safely reveal the real problem. It is only by establishing such a relationship that the consultant can determine what kind of help the client really needs (Schein, 2006).In the case of organisational consulting, a further complication is that the consultant will never understand the culture of the client system well enough to make accurate diagnoses or provide workable prescriptions. Therefore, in organisational consulting, the consultant and the client must become a team that jointly ‘owns’ the consequences of all diagnostic and remedial interventions. However, it must be made clear that it is the client who owns the problem and is ultimately responsible for the solution. The consultant thereby enters into a therapeutic relationship with the client system and can facilitate the improvement of the situation as the client denes it. Clearly then, coaching can be regarded as one kind of intervention that may be helpful to clients in certain circumstances. In this context, coaching establishes a set of behaviours that helps the client to develop a new way of seeing, feeling about and  behaving in problematic situations (Schein, 2006).Counselling is dened as listening, advising and referring when there is a poor attitude, personal problems or some outside inuence causing performance problems. An effective counsellor listens, facilitates, refers, questions, explores options and acts as a condant(e). A step-by-step model of an effective counselling session would include the following: ã Step 1:  Prepare the employee, put him or her at ease, and ensure privacy. ã Step 2:  Explore the problem using active listening techniques. ã Step 3:  Encourage the employee to generate his or her own solutions and then show support. ã Step 4:  Refer him or her, if necessary. ã Step 5:  Follow up (Hart, Blattner & Leipsic, 2007; Salters, 1997).Coaching occurs in the workplace with the intention of improving a manager’s interpersonal skills and ultimately his or her workplace performance. It is more issue-focused than counselling and occurs in a broader array of contexts – including face-to-face sessions, meetings over the telephone and by email – and in a variety of locations away from work (Richard, 1999; Sperry, 1993, 1996). Coaching sessions can last from a few minutes to a few hours (Sperry, 1996; Bachkirova, 2007), whereas counselling typically occurs in a 45- to 50-minute interval. Also, in coaching, as opposed to counselling, data are collected from many sources, including the individual manager, his or her superiors, peers, subordinates and family members (Brotman, Liberi & Wasylyshyn, 1998; Diedrich, 1996; Harris, 1999; Kiel, Rimmer, Williams & Doyle, 1996; Killburg, 1996; Peterson, 1996; Richard, 1999; Witherspoon & White, 1996). Other differences include being able to be more directive in coaching (Levinson, 1996, 2002; Richard, 1999) and viewing the relationship between the manager and the coach as more collegial (Levinson, 1996, 2002; Tobias, 1996), because the need for manager self-disclosure may not be as great as it is for counselling clients (Saporito, 1996). According to Killburg (2000), although the principles of counselling can enhance coaching, the main difference is the depth to which issues are pursued and processed (Kampa-Kokesch & Anderson, 2001).In coaching, the coach may be the expert who teaches the employee how to improve work or job performance. In counselling, however, this approach will not work. The employee has to x it and the manager’s role is to facilitate the process by means of internal and external resources. According to Salters (1997), listen, confront appropriately, refer, support, and, as in coaching, keep the expectations of improvement front and centre. Coaching and counselling both require active listening techniques and hold out the expectation of improvement. Coaching requires a different approach to counselling. Counselling requires condentiality and potentially has a greater risk of liability. In both techniques, the way in which feedback is given is crucial. It should be given in a positive not negative way. In counselling, progress is measured mainly by patient self-reports, while in coaching, performance is measured in more concrete numerical terms (Richard, 1999). Although the above discussion distinguishes coaching from the other interventions – namely, mentoring, facilitation, consulting and counselling, executive coaching has a specic context and particular goals. EXECUTIVE COACHING The coaching partnership often begins when the leader is engaged in a dilemma and feels trapped. The essence of executive coaching is to help leaders become ‘unstuck’ from their dilemmas and assist them to transfer their learning into results for the organisation. Coaches bring the kind of trained (yet natural) curiosity of a journalist or an anthropologist to the leader’s work situation. In addition, coaches typically share   A competence executive coaching modelOriginal Research Tydskrif vir Bedryfsielkunde  S A  J  o ur n al   of  I  n d  u s  t  r i   al  P  s  y  c h  ol   o g y A r  t  i   c l   e #  8  3 7  (page number not for citation purposes) 3 Vol. 36 No. 1 Page 3 of 11 conceptual frameworks, images and metaphors with executives and encourage rigour in the way leaders organise their thinking, visioning, planning and expectations. Furthermore, coaches challenge executives to their own competence or learning edge, and build leaders’ capacity to manage their own anxiety in tough situations (O’Neill, 2000; Stern, 2007).Whitherspoon (2000) describes executive coaching as an action-learning process to enhance effective action and learning agility, a professional relationship and a deliberate, personalised process, to provide an executive with valid information, free and informed choices based on that information, and internal commitment to those choices.Kampa-Kokesch and White (2002) conceptualise executive coaching as a formal, ongoing relationship between an individual or team with managerial authority and responsibility in an organisation, and a consultant who possesses knowledge of behaviour change and organisational functioning. The goal of this relationship is to create measurable behaviour change in the individual or collection of individuals (the team), which results in increased individual and organisational performance, and where the relationship between individual or team and consultant facilitates this change by or through giving direct  behaviourally based feedback, creating opportunities for change and demanding accountability (Kampa-Kokesch & Anderson, 2007; Killburg, 2007a). The roles, services and proles of executive coaches will now be analysed and presented  before a prominent executive coaching model is provided as  background to the competence executive coaching model. Roles of executive coaches The primary reasons for engaging executive coaches, according to Coutu, Kauffman, Charan, Peterson, Maccoby, Scoular and Grant (2009), are as follows: developing high potentials or facilitating transitions (48%), acting as a sounding board (26%) and addressing derailing behaviour (12%). Executive coaches are no longer most often hired to usher toxic leaders out of the company. A further major role of the executive coach is to provide feedback to the executive about the executive’s  behaviour and its impact on others, both those within and outside the organisation (O’Neill, 2000; Witherspoon & White, 1996, 2007). Through this type of feedback, executives can gain increased self-awareness and self-esteem and improve their communication with peers and subordinates (Killburg, 1996, 2006), which in turn can lead to increased morale, productivity and prots for the organisation (Lowman, 2002; Smith, 1993). Executive coaches can also full the roles of image consultant, role model, management consultant, mentor and taskmaster, personal trainer and condant(e), information source, therapist/counsellor and behavioural change agent. Services provided by executive coaches The main services offered by executive coaches are, rstly ,  skills coaching which involves a dynamic interaction between executive and coach. It requires a deliberate process of observation, inquiry, dialogue and discovery. The essence of coaching executives is helping them to learn instead of training or tutoring them (Kampa-Kokesch, 2003). Secondly, coaching for performance involves interventions to remedy problems that interfere with an executive’s job performance or risk derailing a career. Thirdly, in coaching for development (including career and transitional coaching), the concept ‘development’ is used broadly to refer to the executive’s competencies and characteristics required for a future job or role and may entail considerable growth. Over time, an executive’s personal growth and development process becomes more open (able to entertain alternative perspectives), differentiated (able to draw from distinctions) and integrated (able to weave these differences into an increasingly complex whole) (Witherspoon, 2000).Fourthly, coaching for an executive’s agenda refers to personal,  business and/or organisational issues or concerns. Often this coaching covers important issues for executives and their organisations that are otherwise overlooked, particularly during change initiatives, layoffs or company downsizing. Fifthly, sometimes the sessions for coaching for an executive’s agenda border on personal/life coaching, as the executive considers his or her life purpose and personal challenges. Further services provided by executive coaches may include  business, remedial and team coaching (Witherspoon, 2000). Proles of executive coaches The proles of executive coaches are described in terms of knowledge and skills, competencies and other qualities or characteristics.   Skills and knowledge According to Filipezak (1998), business experience is regarded as a vital skill for executive coaches. Psychologists and counsellors with little or no business experience may be ill suited to the role of executive coach. Business experience should be a prerequisite for anyone who identies himself or herself as an executive coach. Executive coaches should have goal-setting tools, be familiar with strategic planning and know how to plan actions and move forward. Many coaches are therapists or former consultants (Morris, 2000). An executive coach who is knowledgeable about the industry can help a new executive who is not. Executive coaches should understand the organisations they are working in (Underhill, 2007). A coach can aid the executive in adjusting to the organisational culture and the executive team. Executive coaches working with managers from different countries need to be aware of the inuence of local culture on the managers’ behaviour. A manager’s organisational culture will often be totally different from that of the executive coach, and understanding these differences can help executive coaches to work more effectively (Donnison, 2008). Knowledge of new management techniques and skills is necessary to understand the developmental history and operation of different psychological tests and instruments. According to Morris (2000), the greatest need for coaching at senior level is in new management techniques and skills. Executive coaches should also understand the developmental history of and be knowledgeable about different psychological tests, instruments (intelligence, personality, motivation, cognitive style, managerial style, aptitude) and 360° methodology (Brotman et al.,  1998). Competencies According to Brotman et al.  (1998), executive coaches are characterised by the competency to facilitate sustained  behaviour change in the work context. The executive is coached to display change in the targeted behaviour(s). This change is consistent, even under pressure or stress (Rothwell & Sullivan, 2005). The new behaviour is sustained by the internalisation of deeper psychological insights about undesirable behaviour(s) and targeted coaching that converts the insights into pragmatic action steps. This includes, (1) identifying habitual self-defeating scripts and learning how the adverse elements of the scripts erode leadership effectiveness, (2) revealing the truth and fresh insights into what drives the executive, (3) converting insights into observable behaviour change, (4) distinguishing between healthy and more primitive defences and (5) operationalising the self-actualisation pattern congruent with business objectives and the executive’s aspirations. Tricky situations involving criticism and blame can be used to facilitate interactional change. The role of the executive coach entails inviting personal and focused criticism and utilising a meta-perspective, as well as anchoring the conversation in the present situational interaction (Brotman, Liberi & Wasylyshyn, 2007; Kykyri, Puutio & Wahlstrom, 2007). These competences and competencies provide some of the important outcomes to be achieved in an executive coaching intervention but do not describe the process in an integrated model.  Original ResearchKoortzen & OosthuizenSA Tydskrif vir Bedryfsielkunde    S   A   J  o  u  r  n  a   l  o   f   I  n   d  u  s   t  r   i  a   l   P  s  y  c   h  o   l  o  g  y    A  r   t   i  c   l  e   #   8   3   7 (page number not for citation purposes) 4 Vol. 36 No. 1 Page 4 of 11 Qualities/characteristics According to Hall, Otazo and Hollenbeck (1999), some of the advantages of external coaches are anonymity, condentiality, experience in many businesses, expertise in political nuances,  being less likely to evaluate and judge, expertise based on extensive experience and being more objective (Sperry, 2007). Gender does not matter in a coaching relationship – communication is the main consideration (Quick & Macik-Frey, 2007). Research has shown that gender, combined with age and position, is sometimes a factor. There is the potential for unethical behaviour. Each organisation should develop its own coaching code of ethics to govern decisions about how coaches are assigned to executives and managers. Further qualities identied by Brotman et al. (1998) are being a trusting and approachable person, being comfortable with different types of people (including top management), having compassion and creativity, being intelligent and having interpersonal and political savvy and sound self-knowledge. EXECUTIVE COACHING MODELS Many executive coaching models exist in the literature, describing the tasks in different phases of the model. In order to address the outcomes-based and competency development models adopted in South Africa, there is a need for a unique competence executive coaching model. In order to develop such as model, various models were consulted and the tasks in each analysed. The following two models are discussed in this article, namely the Strategic Executive Coaching Model (Freas, 2000) and the GROW Model (Alexander, 2006; O’Conner, 2007). These two specic models were chosen because they are well known in industry. The rst represents an overview of the whole coaching process, while the second describes the procedure in a single coaching session. The Strategic Executive Coaching Model This model is described as consisting of a number of steps. A short summary is provided on each of these steps. Step 1: Careful contracting It takes skill to create a trusting environment in which open dialogue can occur and underlying issues can be brought to light. A great deal of honest communication and feedback will set the parameters of the executive coaching process. The objectives of the ‘contracting dialogue’ should include the following, (1) identied success factors for a specic executive’s (or team’s) current and potential role, (2) agreement on condentiality  boundaries, (3) identication of specic expected business results and (4) conrmation that the ‘chemistry’ is right to build trust and rapport (Freas, 2000).Addressing these and other questions will help to dene the organisational and individual expectations and support the  business objectives. It is imperative that a contracting meeting for the purpose of dening expectations take place before the individual coaching begins. Those attending should typically include a senior-level human resources representative, the executive coach and the executive receiving coaching (Laske,2007). Step 2: Comprehensive assessment The second step in the executive coaching process is an assessment of each individual executive. Through interviews and formal assessment tools, gaps between the current and expected performance of each executive are identied to measure how the coaching client stacks up against the business context, expected leadership attributes and expected business results (Laske, 2007). The preferred assessment is done through face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders, such as direct reports, peers, bosses and customers, and by shadowing the executive during his or her daily life. The main advantage of the face-to-face approach is that it enables the coach to probe the client and thus provide both quantitative and qualitative feedback (Freas, 2000).The ultimate value of the assessment process is that the results clearly illustrate areas of strength as well as those requiring attention. This paints a clear picture for the executive in terms of strengths and development opportunities and thus focuses and informs the process. Several executives have described the face-to-face interview method as a 360° survey that comes to life – a much deeper and more meaningful picture then a written 360° report (Freas, 2000). Step 3: Feedback dialogue and action planning Feedback dialogue : The rst order of business in an effective feedback session is to revisit the agreed-upon objectives and review the ground rules. Properly preparing executives for feedback is crucial to ensuring their willingness to listen, accept, open up and move into action planning. Sessions should occur outside the normal ofce environment to ensure a more relaxed experience, free of interruptions or ready escape routes (Kilburg, 2007b). A neutral site helps the executive manager provide feedback that may contradict his or her current self-perceptions. The coach must facilitate the feedback ow process, help the executive understand the data and moderate any negative reactions. During the feedback dialogue session, the coach will continue to refer to the business requirements, leader attributes and expected business results, and compare them with current performance. The aim is to work within a framework that directs feedback towards the key objectives of the business (Freas, 2000). Action planning : The action plan must focus on behaviours that contribute to specic business outcomes. A typical action plan includes the following, (1) strengths and why they are important in the executive’s current role, (2) developmental areas, (3) action steps required or interventions needed in areas requiring improvement, as well as leveraging strengths, (4) the type of coaching style that will best suit the development process, (5) active learning or experiential learning suggestions: (6) ways in which direct reports, bosses, peers and others can help, (7) a process for following up with key stakeholders and (8) key milestones (Freas, 2000).Once the action plan is complete, key stakeholders are invited to validate it. These stakeholders typically comprise the same group involved in the initial assessment interviews. By sharing the action plan with those who were initially interviewed, the executive can be assured that the planned improvements are consistent with expectations. The other advantage of closed-loop validation is that it involves those most likely to benet from a positive change in the executive’s behaviour. This process thus fosters their commitment to help the executive develop (Kilburg, 2007b). Step 4: Active learning Once the key stakeholders agree with the plan, a variety of development strategies are implemented. The executive coach guides and reinforces the development strategies, which may include techniques such as action learning, role playing, case study, simulation, video feedback, shadowing and journaling (Laske, 2007). Special developmental courses and team activities are often recommended to support the executive coaching process. The coaching process is usually supported  by a series of monthly meetings between the coach, executive and key stakeholders. These dialogues help to ensure that the milestones are being met, the ground rules are being followed and the coaching process continues to be focused on the organisation’s business needs (Freas, 2000). Step 5: Reviewing and sustaining success Approximately six months after the feedback session, an abridged version of the initial assessment is conducted to

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