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Cost of Service Report December FY 2010 PP&R Cost of Service (COS) Report COS Purpose, Policy, and Performance Targets A COS study attempts to determine the true or total cost of providing services
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Cost of Service Report December 2010 FY 2010 PP&R Cost of Service (COS) Report COS Purpose, Policy, and Performance Targets A COS study attempts to determine the true or total cost of providing services to the public, and then compares total costs with the revenues generated by the same programming activities to obtain cost recovery rates, expressed as percentages. The COS study shows how much of PP&R s costs are paid for by taxpayer dollars versus how much are paid for by other resources, such as program and rental fees, grants, and donations. This information is used initially to inform policy that indicates what the blend of resources ought to be. Subsequent COS results serve to compare program performance to policy goals. The current policy, adopted by Council in FY 2005, set Direct Recovery and Total Recovery targets by age group and neighborhood income level. Overall targets are currently set at 7 Direct Recovery and 39% Total Recovery. PP&R Policy Targets Age Group Neighborhood Income Direct Recovery Total Recovery Adult Median & Above 11 63% Adult Low 5 26% Youth Median & Above 42% Youth Low 23% Mixed Median & Above 95% 53% Mixed Low 45% 25% All All 7 39% Findings Cost recovery performance has increased over the last 6 years: Programming, or Direct, recovery improved by 7%. For FY 2010, PP&R achieved its direct recovery target of 7. Programming & Operations cost recovery improved by 6%, and All Programs' Total recovery improved by 5%; however, it is still below the 39% target. 10 Programming (7 target) The largest improvement occurred between 2004 and 2005 when costs held steady but revenue increased significantly more. Between 2008 and 2010, Programming, or Direct, recovery improved by 4% due to program revenues increasing more than program costs. During the same time, capital replacement and overhead cost calculations increased, and there were significant increases in costs related to new services such as the East Portland Community Center pool and the expanded Teen Program. These cost increases were offset by a combination of increased revenues and cost reductions in other programs, resulting in an unchanged total cost recovery rate of 34%. 6 63% 68% 68% 67% 66% 7 43% 45% 45% 44% 46% 29% 32% 33% 34% 34% 34% These offsets were made possible as PP&R staff and managers worked together to increase the efficient use of resources by identifying and focusing on programming and service priorities, as well as continuing to seek community support through donations, participation, and volunteerism. Page 1 Costs and Cost Categories The costs considered in the COS study have historically been divided into two categories: Direct and Indirect. This categorization was driven by evidence that Direct costs were those costs over which programming managers had the most control, and Indirect costs were those that were not easily influenced by programming changes. Due to system and organizational changes, it is now possible for programming managers to have some degree of control over Maintenance and Utilities costs, which were previously labeled Indirect. Therefore, for this update, it is now possible to consider three cost categories: Programming Costs This category is comparable to the previously labeled Direct cost category. It is included in this analysis for comparability to prior studies. This group of costs has the closest correlation to the costs that flow through Recreation Programs/Sites budgetary cost centers. Budget differs from cost recovery analysis in that it is a site-based budget, whereas total cost of service includes allocated revenues and costs from other operating units such as maintenance, program administration, and overhead. Cost recovery in this category improved by 4% between FY 2008 and FY Programming & Operations (P&O) Costs This category includes all programming costs, as well as utilities* and maintenance costs. Given system and organizational changes, this category represents the cost pool that can be most influenced by program managers. (*Utilities costs flow through budgetary cost centers, but they are shown separately for comparability to prior studies.) Cost recovery in this category improved by 2% between FY 2008 and FY Total Costs Total costs include all programming and operations costs plus Capital Replacement and Overhead cost calculations, based on PP&R Asset Management and City of Portland Overhead policies, respectively. Cost recovery in this category remained the same between FY 2008 and FY Comparability to Prior Studies The COS methodology is comparable to prior studies. However, two systemic changes occurred between FY 2008 and 2010 which affected Capital Replacement and Overhead cost results in the COS study. Page 2 Capital Replacement As part of the FY 2010 Asset Management work, building replacement costs were updated to consider building type, making the Current Replacement Value more precise. In turn, the updated Current Replacement Values affected the Capital Replacement cost estimate for each location. Overall, Capital Replacement cost increased by 32% between FY 2008 and FY Overhead In FY 2009, the city implemented a new financial system. On a parallel track, the citywide overhead methodology and policy was also updated. The new methodology is applied consistently across all bureaus. Variations in bureau cost structures yield a unique overhead recovery rate for each bureau. For 2010, overhead for PP&R, and thus in the Cost of Service Study, is calculated as 48.21% of all personnel costs. The calculated amount represents all Bureau and General Fund overhead. In prior studies, overhead was calculated in two parts: Bureau overhead and General Fund overhead. The new citywide overhead methodology includes both bureau and General Fund cost pools. Examples of PP&R overhead cost pools are the Director s Office, Finance, and Workforce Support & Development. Examples of General Fund overhead cost pools, each of which is allocated based upon specific metrics, are City Council, the City Attorney s Office, Central Accounting, and Human Resources. For bureaus in the General Fund (GF), the GF overhead allocation is absorbed by the General Fund directly on behalf of each bureau. GF overhead is included in the COS model to arrive at a true cost of service, even though the overhead dollars do not flow through the Bureau s budget. When analyzing results and developing cost recovery goals, it is important to keep in mind that GF overhead, like capital replacement, represents allocated costs not actually incurred in the Bureau. Overall, overhead cost increased by 39% between FY 2008 and FY Recommendations Current cost recovery targets are based on age and income levels within certain geographic areas. While these are important factors to consider, the Bureau should consider aligning cost recovery goals with service priorities and desired outcomes. Service Priorities and Desired Outcomes Cost recovery goals ought to be considered by program. Specific cost recovery targets should be established for programs that are implemented to serve specific public policy needs or market segments. For example, a program like Summer Playgrounds has different service objectives than a fitness class for adults. Page 3 Before service-specific cost recovery goals are established, a service-based cost recovery analysis is required. The first step toward completing a service-based cost recovery analysis is a consistent definition of the bureau s service offerings. The bureau should begin work immediately to consistently define service categories. When this work is completed, the definitions should be implemented within the City s financial system to facilitate ongoing, system-supported, service-based cost recovery analyses. Income Income level and how it relates to a customer s ability to pay is an important consideration. Access for all is central to PP&R s mission. The current cost recovery policy allows a different cost recovery rate based on the neighborhood income of each PP&R location. Recent analysis of customer travel patterns indicates that the service areas of many locations reach far beyond their immediate neighborhood, which means neighborhood income levels are not necessarily similar to the income levels of participants. Income should continue to be a focus of the PP&R cost recovery policy, but it should be considered in an expanded context that includes demographic data from the 2010 Census as well as market information for the service area. Current mechanisms employed to ensure access include a multitude of pricing structures combined with scholarships and a selection of free offerings. The bureau should consider how these mechanisms can be streamlined to enhance equitable access to recreation services throughout the city. Results by Program Programs represent groups of similar services and provide a high-level category in which to consider cost recovery performance. Complete FY 2010 Cost of Service results, by Program and Location, are shown in Appendix A. Data tables and charts for each program and location are found in the following appendices: Appendix B Aquatics Appendix C City Arts Appendix D Combined Centers (Community Centers with Indoor Pools) Appendix E Community Centers (without Indoor Pools) Appendix F Community Gardens, Environmental Education, Outdoor Recreation, Summer Playgrounds Appendix G Permits (Picnics, Special Events, Weddings) Appendix H Sports Appendix I SUN Community Schools Appendix J Adaptive & Inclusive Recreation, Senior Recreation, Teen Program Page 4 Adaptive & Inclusive Recreation (AIR) This program averages nearly 4,000 visits each year. Program offerings include community-based recreation activities and leisure services specially designed for children, teens, and adults who have a disability and/or special needs. Activities are designed to assist people in developing and using their leisure time in ways that enhance their health, well-being, and independence. In FY 2010, the program achieved 44% direct recovery and 23% total recovery. This is an increase over prior years, largely due to grant funding from Multnomah County. Appendix J contains a data table for this program. AIR cost recovery is up due to the receipt of a Mult. County Grant. Programming (7 target) 44% 42% 23% Aquatics This group includes all outdoor, summer pools as well as the indoor Columbia Pool which operates all year. Pools that are inside community centers are not included in this COS program category. 10 Aquatics Programming (7 target) 84% These pools receive more than 500,000 visits each year in activities such as swim lessons, open play swim, lap swim, and water exercise. In FY 2010, these pools achieved 84% direct recovery and 38% total recovery. This is an improvement of 15% and 5%, respectively, since FY Appendix B contains data tables and charts for each location. 6 57% 38% City Arts City Arts locations receive more than 250,000 visits each year in dance, music, and art classes, as well as performances and other special events. In addition, Multnomah Arts Center provides ongoing rental space to several community service agencies. In FY 2010, City Arts locations achieved 101% direct recovery and 56% total recovery. This is a decline of 1% in direct and total recovery rates since FY Appendix C contains data tables and charts for each location City Arts Programming (7 target) 101% 83% 56% Page 5 Combined Centers (Community Centers with Indoor Pools) Combined Centers receive more than a 1.2 million visits each year in pool, gym, fitness center, classroom, and special event activities. These locations are generally open every day, with few holiday or other closures. Combined Centers 10 Programming (7 target) 74% Combined Centers are buildings that include both a community center and an indoor pool. These locations are grouped together because their multi-use nature differentiates them from stand-alone community centers and pools. With the opening of the indoor pool in FY 2009, East Portland Community Center became the fourth Combined Center location. 6 54% 38% In FY 2010, the program achieved 74% direct recovery and 38% total recovery. This is a decrease from prior years. With the addition of East Portland to the Combined Centers group, Combined Centers total expenses increased more than revenues resulting in a slight decline in cost recovery. Appendix D contains data tables and charts for each location. All Community Centers When community centers, both with and without pools, are combined into one group, the cost recovery performance is steady over time. All Community Centers 10 6 Programming (7 target) 68% 51% 36% Community Centers (without Indoor Pools) Community Centers receive more than 400,000 visits each year in gym, fitness, classroom, and special event activities. Half of these centers are located in low income neighborhoods, and all but University Park are older, smaller buildings. These locations are generally not open on the weekends and may be closed on holidays. Community Centers 10 Programming (7 target) In FY 2010, the Community Centers Program achieved 54% direct recovery and 29% total recovery. With the move of East Portland to the Combined Centers group, Community Centers expenses decreased more than revenues resulting in a slight improvement in cost recovery. Appendix E contains data tables and charts for each location. 6 54% 44% 29% Page 6 Community Gardens Community Gardens receive more than 7,000 visits each year, serving residents of all neighborhoods. The program trains volunteers to be garden leaders, provides plots for personal gardening, and contributes to community food cupboards. During FY 2004 through FY 2006, new gardens were opened which increased revenue. At the same time, no significant changes in staff expense were incurred which is reflected in the increased programming cost recovery across those years. In FY 2007, additional staff were hired to manage the growing system, resulting in decreased programming cost recovery. In FY 2009 fees were increased by 5, resulting in a slightly improved FY 2010 performance of 78% direct recovery and 24% total recovery. Environmental Education The Environmental Education Program averages more than 5,000 visits per year, primarily serving low income youth. The program offers diverse environmental experiences in PP&R s outdoor spaces. Classes, guided walks, camp programs, volunteer opportunities, and special events focus on the forest, grassland, and water ecosystems available in neighborhoods throughout the city. In FY 2010, the program achieved 41% direct recovery and 3 total recovery. This is an improvement of 9% and 5%, respectively, since FY Appendix F contains a detailed data table for this program. Outdoor Recreation The Outdoor Recreation Program participation averages 4,000 visits per year. The program offers access to extraordinary natural and cultural landscapes in and around the Portland metro area through a wide range of outdoor classes, trips, and overnight adventures. Recovery performance improved in FY 2010 due to a reduction in programming costs. The downward trend over the last several years has been partially due to a programming shift toward delivering more teen and youth activities, coupled with a reduction in advertising and promotion expenditures which resulted in decreased overall participation. In FY 2010, the program achieved 86% direct recovery and 72% total recovery. Appendix F contains a detailed data table for this program. Community Gardens 1 Programming (7 target) % 6 31% 24% Environmental Ed 10 6 Programming ( target) Total (23% target) Outdoor Recreation Programming (11 target) Total (63% target) 41% 3 86% 72% Page 7 Summer Playgrounds The Summer Playgrounds program serves thousands of children every summer, with many locations offering free lunch. Most playground and craft activities are free to participants. Summ er Playgrounds 10 Programming ( target) Total (23% target) In addition to general fund support, this program received a generous $50,000 donation from NRPA in FY 2010, which largely contributed to the program s 3 direct recovery and 19% total recovery in FY Appendix F contains a detailed data table for this program. Permits In addition to other duties, the PP&R Customer Service Center (CSC) generates hundreds of permits for picnics, weddings, special events, and other permits throughout the park system. Only the percentage of CSC staff time and cost related to Recreational Use permits are considered in this study, and of that percentage, time and costs related to Sports permits are allocated to the Sports Program. FY 2005 was the final year of a downward trend in permit revenues. In FY 2006, a proposal to expand permitted use of parks was approved including increasing the number of allowable events at Waterfront Park, adding more concessionaires to the South Park Blocks near PSU, and reducing sponsorship awards for special events. Expansion-related revenue effectively reversed the downward trend. In FY 2010, the Permits Program achieved 123% direct recovery and 45% total recovery. Appendix G contains data tables and charts specific to Picnics, Special Events, and Weddings. Senior Recreation The Senior Recreation Program receives more than 23,000 visits each year. Courses are offered citywide in SUN community schools, community centers, city arts facilities, golf courses, tennis centers, and swimming pools. As well as programming in PP&R facilities, Senior Recreation offers courses in Portland-area Loaves & Fishes locations and local senior centers. In FY 2010, the program achieved 72% direct recovery and 5 total recovery. This is an improvement of 19% and 1, respectively, since FY 2008, largely due to additional grant funding from Multnomah County. Appendix J contains a data table for this program % 19% Perm its Programming ( target) Total (45% target) % % 45% Senior Recreation 10 6 Programming ( target) Total (45% target) 2010 cost recovery is up due to the receipt of a Mult. County Grant. 72% 7 5 Page 8 Sports This category includes all sports activities programmed by the Sports Office, which primarily includes youth basketball, tennis, adult softball, volleyball, and track, as well as all permitted sports use of PP&R property. In FY 2010, the Sports Program achieved 114% direct recovery and 22% total recovery. This is an improvement of 18% and 5%, respectively, since FY Appendix H contains data tables and charts specific to basketball, field sports, and tennis. SUN Community Schools SUN Community Schools is a collaborative arrangement between Multnomah County Department of Human Services, PP&R, and Centennial, Reynolds, Parkrose, David Douglas, Gresham-Barlow, and Portland Public School Districts. Currently, there are 58 SUN Community Schools, 11 of which are operated by PP&R. Critical components of the program include education, social services, multi-cultural and cultural arts, recreation and leisure services, health services, and citizen involvement. The locations managed by PP&R receive over 150,000 visits each year. In FY 2010, the program achieved 22% direct recovery and 15% total recovery. This is an improvement of 6% and 3%, respectively, since FY Appendix I contains data tables and charts for each location. Teens This program focuses on bringing teens into positive programs that build skills and self esteem. Teen-specialty Recreation Coordinators are located in several PP&R community centers to engage teens across the city. The program was piloted in 2006 and has grown over the last two years. FY 2010 was the first year this program has been included in the COS study, and it recovered 5% of direct and 4% of total costs SUN Community Schools % 1 Teen Program 5% Sports % 4% Programming (7 target) 114% 24% 22% Programming (7 target) SUN Community School programs are operated in public school buildings; building operating costs (maintenance and utilities) for those loca
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