Critical Thinking - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

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  10/23/2014Critical thinking - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Critical thinking From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Critical thinking  is the study of clear, reasoned thinking. According to Beyer (1995) Critical thinkingmeans making clear, reasoned judgements. While in the process of critical thinking, your thoughts should be reasoned and well thought out/judged. [1]  The National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinkingdefines critical thinking as the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing,applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by,observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.'  [2] Contents 1 Etymology2 Definitions3 Skills4 Procedure5 Habits or traits of mind6 R esearch7 Education7.1 Efficacy8 Importance9 See also10 Notes11 References12 Further reading13 External links Etymology In the term critical thinking , the word critical  , (Grk. κριτικός = kritikos  = “critic”) derives from the word critic , and identifies the intellectual capacity and the means “of judging”, “of judgement”, “for judging”,and of being “able to discern”. [3] efinitions According to the field of inquiry, critical thinking  is defined as: the process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and  10/23/2014Critical thinking - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia evaluating information to reach an answer or conclusion [4] disciplined thinking that is clear, rational, open-minded, and informed by evidence [5] reasonable, reflective thinking focused on deciding what to believe or do [6] purposeful, self-regulatory judgment which results in interpretation, analysis, evaluation, andinference, as well as explanation of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological, or contextual considerations upon which that judgment is based [7] includes a commitment to using reason in the formulation of our beliefs [8] in critical social theory, it is the commitment to the social and political practice of participatorydemocracy; willingness to imagine or to remain open to considering alternative perspectives;willingness to integrate new or revised perspectives into our ways of thinking and acting; andwillingness to foster criticality in others. [9] the skill and propensity to engage in an activity with reflective scepticism (McPeck, 1981)disciplined, self-directed thinking which exemplifies the perfection of thinking appropriate to a particular mode of domain of thinking (Paul, 1989, p. 214)thinking about one's thinking in a manner designed to organize and clarify, raise the efficiency of,and recognize errors and biases in one's own thinking. Critical thinking is not 'hard' thinking nor is itdirected at solving problems (other than 'improving' one's own thinking). Critical thinking is inward-directed with the intent of maximizing the rationality of the thinker. One does not use critical thinkingto solve problems — one uses critical thinking to improve one's process of thinking. [10] Skills The list of core critical thinking skills includes observation, interpretation, analysis, inference, evaluation,explanation, and metacognition. According to Reynolds (2011), an individual or group engaged in a strongway of critical thinking gives due consideration to establish for instance: [11] Evidence through realityContext skills to isolate the problem from contextRelevant criteria for making the judgment wellApplicable methods or techniques for forming the judgmentApplicable theoretical constructs for understanding the problem and the question at hand  10/23/2014Critical thinking - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In addition to possessing strong critical-thinking skills, one must be disposed to engage problems anddecisions using those skills. Critical thinking employs not only logic but broad intellectual criteria such asclarity, credibility, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, significance, and fairness. [12] Procedure Critical thinking calls for the ability to:Recognize problems, to find workable means for meeting those problemsUnderstand the importance of prioritization and order of precedence in problem solvingGather and marshal pertinent (relevant) informationRecognize unstated assumptions and valuesComprehend and use language with accuracy, clarity, and discernmentInterpret data, to appraise evidence and evaluate argumentsRecognize the existence (or non-existence) of logical relationships between propositionsDraw warranted conclusions and generalizationsPut to test the conclusions and generalizations at which one arrivesReconstruct one's patterns of beliefs on the basis of wider experienceRender accurate judgments about specific things and qualities in everyday lifeIn sum: A persistent effort to examine any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the evidence thatsupports or refutes it and the further conclusions to which it tends. [13] Habits or traits of mind The habits of mind that characterize a person strongly disposed toward critical thinking include a desire tofollow reason and evidence wherever they may lead, a systematic approach to problem solving,inquisitiveness, even-handedness, and confidence in reasoning. [14] According to a definition analysis by Kompf & Bond (2001), critical thinking involves problem solving,decision making, metacognition, rationality, rational thinking, reasoning, knowledge, intelligence and also amoral component such as reflective thinking. Critical thinkers therefore need to have reached a level of maturity in their development, possess a certain attitude as well as a set of taught skills. Research Edward Glaser proposed that the ability to think critically involves three elements: [13] 1. An attitude of being disposed to consider in a thoughtful way the problems and subjects that comewithin the range of one's experiences  10/23/2014Critical thinking - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 2. Knowledge of the methods of logical inquiry and reasoning3. Some skill in applying those methods.Educational programs aimed at developing critical thinking in children and adult learners, individually or ingroup problem solving and decision making contexts, continue to address these same three centralelements.Contemporary cognitive psychology regards human reasoning as a complex process that is both reactiveand reflective. [15] The relationship between critical thinking skills and critical thinking dispositions is an empirical question.Some people have both in abundance, some have skills but not the disposition to use them, some aredisposed but lack strong skills, and some have neither. A measure of critical thinking dispositions is theCalifornia Measure of Mental Motivation. [16] Education John Dewey is one of many educational leaders who recognized that a curriculum aimed at buildingthinking skills would benefit the individual learner, the community, and the entire democracy. [17] Critical thinking is significant in academics due to being significant in learning. Critical thinking issignificant in the learning process of internalization, in the construction of basic ideas, principles, andtheories inherent in content. And critical thinking is significant in the learning process of application,whereby those ideas, principles, and theories are implemented effectively as they become relevant inlearners' lives. Good teachers cultivate critical thinking (intellectually engaged thinking) at every stage of learning, including initial learning. This process of intellectual engagement is at the heart of the Oxford,Durham, Cambridge and London School of Economics tutorials. The tutor questions the students, often in aSocratic manner (see Socratic questioning). The key is that the teacher who fosters critical thinking fostersreflectiveness in students by asking questions that stimulate thinking essential to the construction of knowledge.Each discipline adapts its use of critical thinking concepts and principles (principles like in school). Thecore concepts are always there, but they are embedded in subject-specific content. For students to learncontent, intellectual engagement is crucial. All students must do their own thinking, their own constructionof knowledge. Good teachers recognize this and therefore focus on the questions, readings, activities thatstimulate the mind to take ownership of key concepts and principles underlying the subject.In the UK school system, Critical Thinking   is offered as a subject that 16- to 18-year-olds can take as an A-Level. Under the OCR exam board, students can sit two exam papers for the AS: Credibility of Evidence and Assessing and Developing Argument . The full Advanced GCE is now available: in addition to thetwo AS units, candidates sit the two papers Resolution of Dilemmas and Critical Reasoning . The A-level tests candidates on their ability to think critically about, and analyze, arguments on their deductive or inductive validity, as well as producing their own arguments. It also tests their ability to analyze certainrelated topics such as credibility and ethical decision-making. However, due to its comparative lack of subject content, many universities do not accept it as a main A-level for admissions. [18]  Nevertheless, the

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