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CS : Network Security. What Is This Class?

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CS : Network Security Prof. Vern Paxson January 21, 2009 What Is This Class? ~New graduate course on network security
CS : Network Security Prof. Vern Paxson January 21, 2009 What Is This Class? ~New graduate course on network security ~New = it may be bumpy at times Graduate = focus on reading papers, participatory discussion, major project Network security = how do we keep our computer networks functioning as intended & free of abuse Network = heavy emphasis on global Internet Little emphasis on host-side issues 1 Target Audience Course intended to: Provide grounding necessary for pursuing PhD research in network security Provide breadth for those undertaking research in other areas of security or networking Evolve into regular grad offering complementing CS 261 Not intended to: Summarize Internet security issues / technology / practices Prerequisites EE 122 (undergrad networking) or equivalent Basic network security notions Firewalls, public-key crypto, spoofing, buffer overflow attacks Basic probability/statistics A willingness to thoughtfully read a lot of technical papers & tackle a hefty/meaningful project 2 Who Am I? Recent professor in EECS (2007) Recent = it will be bumpy at times :-) Also affiliated with International Computer Science Institute and the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab Contact: Office hours M 1:30-2:30PM in 737 Soda And by appointment, sometimes at ICSI Phone: , works much better! Hearing impaired: please be ready to repeat questions & comments! Who Am I?, con t Research focuses on network security & network measurement Been around the block 10+ years on both topics PC chair/co-chair of SIGCOMM, USESEC, IEEE S&P ( Oakland ), HotNets CCIED = NSF Cybertrust Center for Internet Epidemiology & Defenses Large-scale compromise, i.e., worms & now botnets 5 year effort joint w/ UCSD (through 2009) Bro network intrusion detection system (NIDS) running 24x7 at LBNL (since 1996!) 3 My Perspectives/Biases I am an empiricist It can be amazing how different a very large system behaves in practice vs. how you would expect it to if you only measure in a confined laboratory environment A vital, easily overlooked facet of security is policy (and accompanying it: operating within constraints) Much of network security is necessarily reactive, unprincipled, incomplete Perspectives/Biases, con t The goal is risk management, not bulletproof protection. Much of the effort concerns raising the bar and trading off resources This applies to research as well as practice Key notion of threat model: what you are defending against This can differ from what you d expect Consider the Department of Energy 4 General Research Themes All papers have shortcomings Doesn t mean you can t extract value For your own work: Frame limitations Be thorough & generous towards prior work Provide insight into tradeoffs Methodological issues Gauging data quality Bootstrapping (perhaps) ground truth Partition development vs. assessment data General Research Themes Replication/criticism of prior work is unfortunately very rare Corollary: little research upside to publishing data Research does not proceed as presented in a well-written paper Topics can heat up excessively Multicast, QoS; Traceback, worm models Crucial task for successful research is problem selection 5 Network Security Research Themes Evasion-proof is not a realistic goal Research progresses in often-pretty-modest steps (building blocks) Raising the bar has definite utility Today s evasion problem looks different tomorrow But: do frame evasion picture Field changes very fast Including serendipity You need to figure out how to be nimble Research Themes, con t Beware the problem of Crud Surprising diversity of benign activity Great utility in obtaining real data We re constantly trading off Especially false positives vs. negatives Beware funding ecosystems (and popular press) E.g., DARPA s need for metrics Historically, publishing attacks has been worthwhile But not guaranteed 6 What s Expected of You? Read 2 (sometimes 3) papers/week There is an art here regarding figuring out which facets to spend time on and which not Write mini-reviews of each paper Mini-review = a few sentences for each of What are the paper s main contributions? What parts of the paper do you find unclear? What parts of the paper are questionable? E.g., methodology, omissions, relevance Given the contributions, what issues remain? What related ideas does it bring to mind? me your reviews prior to corresponding lecture (Tue 9AM for Weds; Fri 1PM for Mon) Late = 50% penalty (no credit if after lecture summary) What s Expected of You?, con t Participate in lecture discussion of the paper & the topic Scribe a couple of lectures/semester Scribe = write up summary of lecture suitable for posting on course web site Due 1 week after lecture Send me LaTeX, HTML or Word (editable) Inspect syllabus and tell me which lecture(s) you d like to scribe (FCFS) # of lectures to scribe depends on final class size 7 What s Expected of You?, con t Undertake a significant project Individually or in a team of two (encouraged) Discuss w/ me if you want a larger team Can involve: Measurement study characterizing/exploring a network security issue Substantive analysis/assessment of security issues for a given network system Development of a new mechanism or technique Deep, thoughtful literature survey of an area Develop & assess a new threat Project, con t Proposals due within a couple of weeks To be commented upon by your peers Related Work writeup due before Spring Break Short status report due a few weeks later Class presentations in early May Final project due at end of semester Written as a conference-style paper 8 Project, con t Aim high! End result should be workshop-caliber The best should be within shouting distance of publication-caliber Find a topic that grabs you Feel free to run preliminary ideas by me Grading Homework + Participation Scribing Project 20% + 15% 15% 50% FAQ: Can I audit the course? A: Instead, please take it P/F. To pass, you need to then do a solid job on either homework/participation/scribing, or a project. Let me know up front which you re pursuing. 9 Lecture Format Each lecture has at its heart a core paper (sometimes 2) For the most part, seminal paper that opened new area or developed key new insight Not bleeding edge or comprehensive or perfect Lecture will cover main contributions but then go from there into related considerations (sometimes taken from the optional reading) in an interactive fashion What to cover & where to go driven in part by thoughts/considerations from HW writeups Ethics We will be discussing attacks - some quite nasty! - and powerful eavesdropping technology None of this is in any way an invitation to undertake these in any fashion other than with informed consent of all involved parties If in some context there s any question in your mind, come talk with me first Oh and: for homeworks, please do your own work 10 A Look At The (Tentative) Topics Denial-of-Service Traceback Network Capabilities DoS Defense Tentative Topics, con t Network intrusion detection Systems Evasion Evaluation Worms Threat Distilling signatures Detection mechanisms 11 Tentative Topics, con t Scanning Forensics Traffic Analysis Web Authentication & Attacks Anonymity Tentative Topics, con t Botnets Architecture Legal & Ethical Issues Infrastructure Protection Wireless 12 Give Feedback Regarding syllabus Topics/subtopics you d like explored Particular papers Post-lecture We can revisit at beginning of next lecture Course mechanics Anonymous is fine if you want Either using a r er Or just a note under my door (737 Soda) Some Project Ideas - SP08 Dynamic firewalls for data centers Security analysis of AirBears Distributed detection of spam sources Detecting fast flux DNS domains in real-time Literature survey of forensics Survey of SCADA security issues Assessment of the relationship between users and overall system security Automated vulnerability diagnosis for network services Efficacy of heuristics for detecting phishing sites 13 Some Project Ideas - Elsewhere Privacy exposure of social networking sites Software updater vulnerabilities Fingerprinting spam-generation software Detecting phishing sites by logo-matching (*) Documenting and explaining the wholesale traffic delivery business Project Ideas, con t Reproduce a result from the literature Build a detector for traffic injection (DNS, ARP) and run it widely Javascript analysis / rewriting (*) Constructing services with specific vulnerabilities (*) Spam classification & mining (*) Counterspam (*) XML/AJAX analysis & attacks 14 Project Ideas, con t Attribution architecture (*) Finding exploitable flaws in botnet C&C (*) Relationship between whois data & malice (*) Mining network tools for protocol archaeology (*) End-user/middlebox negotiation architecture (*) Evidence of spammers hijacking address blocks via BGP Longitudinal traffic analysis (scanning, service flux; *) Cloud computing security analysis Project Ideas, con t Is on-line poker fair? Automated analysis of IRC chat focussed on illegal transactions (*) Spoofing GPS via software radio? How does web malice change depending on user agent / fingerprint / IP address? Assessment of accuracy/efficacy/overlap of blacklist feeds 15 Project Ideas, con t Build software to inject artificial information into keyloggers/spyware/ harvesters, verify that it works Can you detect vote fraud in YouTube/EBay/Amazon? Analysis/detection of blog spam Analysis of DDoS traces Fingerprinting malware family trees by the data structures they use Some Possible Project Resources Trace/log analysis mediation whois data, DNS churn Blacklist feeds Malware specimens Javascript corpus NetGear boxes 16 Next Lecture Denial-of-Service Homework #1 due Friday 1PM Writeup for Backscatter paper Check out the syllabus Background survey Optional: read/write up TCP DoS or Reflector Attacks papers 17
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