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1. DISTRIBUTION PACKAGING SYMPOSIUM ASTM Meeting, Anaheim, California 7th April 2007, Monday 10 am – 12.00 University Liaison Committee (Cal Poly, MSU, RIT Packaging…
  • 1. DISTRIBUTION PACKAGING SYMPOSIUM ASTM Meeting, Anaheim, California 7th April 2007, Monday 10 am – 12.00 University Liaison Committee (Cal Poly, MSU, RIT Packaging Programs)
  • 2. Agenda Hazards in distribution Single Parcel Shipping Environment Transportation Vibration Measurement Dangerous Goods Shipments
  • 3. Dangerous Goods Shipments
  • 4. Hazards in Distribution
  • 5. Physical/Transportation Environment Refers to the freight movement activities and the hazardous incidents and elements occurring during these activities Impact Stacking Vibration Impact Stacking Visual inspection, incubation and other testing Hazards experienced in a simple shipping scenario
  • 6. Physical/Transportation Environment Annual damage to consumer products ~ $10 billion in the U.S. due to transportation and handling Led to “Shock & Vibration” area – PACKAGING DYNAMICS Shock – instantaneous, drops, ↑ F Vibration – continuous, vibration, ↓ F
  • 7. Global Supply Chain Salinas, CA Buenos Aires, Argentina Helsinki, Finland Seoul, Korea Tokyo, Japan 19 HOURS Blood Red Strawberries Height of Summer
  • 8. Distribution Hazards Following are some dynamic forces encountered by a package during distribution: Manhandling: dropping, throwing and other abuses applied by the manual loading, unloading and movement of packages Warehouse handling equipment: stresses applied by mechanical handling equipment such as forklifts, conveyors, etc.
  • 9. Distribution Hazards Vehicle impacts: starting, stopping and other jolts due to the movement of trucks, railcars, ships and aircraft Vehicle vibrations: naturally occurring vibrations resulting from the motion of engines and moving contact of the vehicle with highway and rails
  • 10. 1. Single Parcel Shipping Environment
  • 11. Single Parcel Shipping Environment The past decade has shown a great increase in the number of direct to consumer shipments of products and packages. Using various modes of transportation, these packages are routed between destinations after being sorted using hub and spoke models.
  • 12. Shippertakesparceltodrop Receiverpicksupparcel Origin – shipper’s premises Destination – receiver's (consignee’s) premises Local pick-up vehicle (multiple stops) Origin hub or terminal Destination hub Local pick- up vehicle Local delivery vehicle Carrier drop location – drop box, mail store or post office Carrier pick-up location – mail store or post office Lines haul (truck, rail or air) Intermediate hubs Line haul A Hub-and-Spoke System
  • 13. Operating Center Operating Center Cargo AircraftCargo Aircraft National Hub Package Car Package Car Package Delivery System Air Transport Containers Air Transport Containers
  • 14. Single Parcel Shipping Environment Over 30 major studies completed with major carriers for US and Europe There is a continuous need to quantify what happens to these packages as they are handled both manually during collection and delivery and on large high speed conveying and sortation equipment at hubs. The dynamic events during these moves can cause damage. The information collected for the hazards experienced in route by the packages is useful in designing protective packaging.
  • 15. Single Parcel Shipping Environment Comparison Study Objectives: To characterize the dynamics of the second-day air express environment for small (7.75” × 7” × 5.75”) and lightweight packages (less than 5.5 lb) shipped by USPS, UPS, FedEx and DHL within the US. To provide recommended test levels for drop testing packages of this size and weight for the single parcel shipping environment.
  • 16. Examples of Transportation Recorders
  • 17. Instrumentation Lansmont model Saver 3X90 and IST EDR 3C Internal tri-axial accelerometer that records: Drop heights Impacts Vehicle motion Vibration Temperature Humidity Duration of 90 days
  • 19. Test Package
  • 20. Shipping Routes Shipping Routes of FedEx
  • 21. Shipping Routes of UPS
  • 22. San Luis Obispo, CA Van Nuys, CA Goleta, CA Grand Rapids, MI East Lansing, MI Shipping Routes of USPS
  • 23. Results Carrier Drop Data USPS UPS FedEx DHL Number of Drops 49 82 100 102 Maximum Drop Height (in) 136.86 74.49 74.69 131.84 Drop height at 99% occurrence (in) 59.42 52.20 72.59 68.30 Drop height at 95% occurrence (in) 44.26 25.90 49.35 43.96 Drop height at 90% occurrence (in) 38.12 15.44 24.69 34.84
  • 24. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Number of Drops Maximum Drop Height (in) Drop height at 99% occurrence (in) Drop height at 95% occurrence (in) Drop height at 90% occurrence (in) USPS UPS FedEx DHL
  • 25. Results 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Drop Height (in.) CumulativePercentage FedEx USPS UPS DHL
  • 26. Results Drop Height (in) Shipping Company USPS UPS FedEx DHL Highest 136.86 74.49 74.69 131.84 2nd Highest 59.42 52.20 72.59 68.30 3rd Highest 44.26 48.73 71.36 66.20 4th Highest 41.78 41.56 51.48 49.43 5th Highest 39.65 25.90 50.76 48.80 6th Highest 38.12 22.79 49.35 43.96 7th Highest 32.77 21.54 36.56 40.28 8th Highest 31.26 17.93 31.95 40.14 9th Highest 28.94 15.44 31.57 36.63 10th Highest 28.17 13.30 31.45 35.30
  • 27. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 H ighest 2nd H ighest 3rd H ighest 4th H ighest 5th H ighest 6th H ighest 7th H ighest 8th H ighest 9th H ighest 10th H ighest DropHeight(in) USPS UPS FedEx DHL
  • 28. Results Orientation of Drops (%) Carrier Face Edge Corner UPS 19.36 36.62 44.02 USPS 8.17 57.14 34.69 FedEx 13.95 44.26 41.79 DHL 20.59 28.43 50.98
  • 29. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 UPS USPS FedEx DHL OrientationofDrops(%) Face Edge Corner
  • 30. Results The typical number of drops according to ASTM and ISTA test methods range from six to ten to twelve Select optimum number of drops for lab simulation of shipping environment Creating lab test depends on looking up the values in the provided tables: Drop height based on Assurance Level for product Orientation %
  • 31. MSU CDP Published Studies Singh, J., Singh, S. P., Voss, T., Saha, K. “A Study of the Effect of Pictorial Markings and Warning Labels on Handling of Packages in the DHL Single Parcel Environment,” Packaging Technology and Science, In Print. Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI: 10.1002/pts.800 Singh, J., Singh, S. P., Burgess, G., Saha, K., “Measurement, Analysis and Comparison of the Parcel Shipping Shock and Drop Environment of United States Postal Service with Commercial Carriers”. Journal of Testing and Evaluation, Vo. 35, No. 4. Garcia-Martinez, M., S. P. Singh, V. Cloquell, and K. Saha, "Measurement and Analysis of International Air Parcel Shipping Environment for DHL and FedEx between Europe and United States”, DOI 10.1002/pts.775, Journal of Packaging Technology and Science, John Wiley and Sons, 2007. Singh, S. P., G. Burgess, J. Singh and M. Kremer, "Measurement and Analysis of Next Day Air Shipping Environment for Mid Sized and Light Weight Packages for DHL, FedEx and USPS”, Journal of Packaging Technology and Science, John Wiley and Sons, Vol. 19, 2006.
  • 32. MSU CDP Published Studies Singh, S. P., G. Burgess and J. Singh, “Measurement and Analysis of the Small and Light Weight Parcel Shipping Environment”. Journal of Testing and Evaluation, ASTM, Vol. 32, No. 5, 2004. Singh, S. P. G. Burgess and J. Singh, “Measurement and Analysis of the Second-day Air Small and Light-weight Package Shipping Environment within Federal Express,” Packaging Technology and Science, 17: 119-127, 2004. Singh, S. P., G. Burgess, Z. Hays, "Measurement and Analysis of the UPS Ground Shipping Environment for Large and Heavy Packages", JTEVA, Vol. 29, ASTM, 2001. Singh, S. P., Cheema, "Measurement and Analysis of the Overnight Small Package Shipping Environment for Federal Express and United Parcel Service", JTEVA, ASTM, Vol. 24, No. 4, 205-211, 1996.
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