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Department of Civil Engineering Annual Report 2007 DTU Civil Engineering Annual Report 2007 Editor: Charlotte Welin Layout: Helle A. Meulengrath Photos: Simon Klein Knudsen/MAKWERK Inge Rörig-Dalgaard
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Department of Civil Engineering Annual Report 2007 DTU Civil Engineering Annual Report 2007 Editor: Charlotte Welin Layout: Helle A. Meulengrath Photos: Simon Klein Knudsen/MAKWERK Inge Rörig-Dalgaard Lisbeth M. Ottosen Jacob Birck Laustsen 2. Maj Kristian Hertz Thomas Ingemann-Nielsen Per Goltermann Expan A/S Carsten Lind Poul Linnert Christiansen 4you/dtu Printed in Denmark by Schultz Grafisk, Albertslund ISBN: DTU Civil Engineering Technical University of Denmark Brovej, Building 118 DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby Phone: Fax: Front Picture: PhD student Anders Ole Stubbe Solgaard, DTU Civil Engineering Contents From the Head of Department 05 Organisation 06 Selections from A new research centre 07 Electrochemistry for preservation of cultural heritage 08 A new shading system lights the dark and saves energy 10 Simulated flights improve the indoor environment in aircraft 11 New advanced models can improve concrete constructions 12 Double Degree in Civil Engineering at TUM and DTU 13 Permafrost model predicts impacts of future climate changes 14 Concrete elements - from teaching to innovation 16 Nutaaliorfik a show window for new sustainable projects 17 Self-Compacting Concrete, the concrete of the future 18 There is a need for more PhD students 19 Publications 20 Journal papers, ISI-indexed 20 Journal papers, peer reviewed 21 Books 22 Book chapters 22 Conference papers, peer reviewed 23 Reports 27 PhD theses 28 MSc theses 28 BEng theses 30 Staff, education, research, finance 34 03 Annual Review Management Report 2007: A prosperous year for DTU Civil Engineering DTU Civil Engineering is a university department within the building and construction sector. Our mission is education, research, innovation, and public sector consultancy. Through our work we contribute to the generation of social and commercial value. Our vision is to become a leading European Civil Engineering Department and a preferred partner for companies, authorities, and institutions in the building and construction sector. Civil engineering education in Denmark started in 1857 when professor Ludvig Holmberg was employed at the Technical University of Denmark, then called Polyteknisk Læreanstalt. Since then Danish civil engineers have contributed with science based engineering solutions to social and economic value creation both in Denmark and internationally. DTU Civil Engineering celebrated the 150 years jubilee with a series of activities culminating at the B150 conference in November Today DTU Civil Engineering covers most civil and architectural engineering research disciplines and offers engineering education at bachelor, master and PhD level in all areas of civil and architectural engineering. Research DTU Civil Engineering s Strategy identified facilities management as a new focus area. Thus it was a great success when the foundation Realdania through a grant of 3.4 million established the Realdania Research Centre for Facilities Management at DTU. DTU Civil Engineering has increased its focus on international research publication, and the number of ISI papers increased from 30 in 2006 to 48 in This is a result of a decision to move publications from conference proceedings and reports to ISI journals when appropriate. The number of ongoing PhD projects increased; 13 PhD projects started in DTU s Dean of Research organised an international research evaluation of the department. The evaluation consisted of a self evaluation report and a three day review by an international expert panel. The panel concluded that DTU Civil Engineering since 2003 has followed a clear road map for elevation of the department, and that the changes have moved the average research level upwards to high national, and that individual research groups have moved their level to high international. The self evaluation report and the expert panel report are available at Education Since 2003 civil and architectural engineering has attracted an increasing amount of qualified students. The number of applicants are now higher than the number we can admit on the Danish bachelor programmes, thus a limitation based on marks from the entry exam is used. The limiting average marks, using the Danish ects-scale, were 7.2 for BSc in civil engineering, 7.1 for BEng in architectural engineering, and 4.1 for BEng in civil engineering. Also the BEng programme in arctic technology experienced an increasing number of applications following a revision of the study programme. Following the introduction of the Bologna declaration on higher education at DTU in 2004 the first students entered the MSc programme in civil engineering in September The civil engineering programme had the largest uptake among DTU s 04 MSc programmes. The Danish Accreditation Institution, ACE Denmark, approved the new MSc programme in architectural engineering, and the first master students began their studies in spring The Faculty for Civil Engineering and Surveying at Technical University of Munich, TUM, and DTU Civil Engineering established a double degree programme in Civil Engineering as one of the initiatives under the strategic alliance between TUM and DTU. Innovation Collaboration with industry has high priority for DTU Civil Engineering and we increased both the number and the magnitude of industry sponsored research and development projects. Notably the High Tech Network for Low Energy Building, LavEByg, was granted a three year prolongation grant from the Ministry of Research. LavEByg includes nearly 100 companies dealing with energy efficiency technology for buildings. The Centre for Arctic Technology, ARTEK, was instrumental in creation of an innovation house in Sisimiut, Greenland. This illustrates the potential of the unique link between research at international level at DTU, education in Greenland (Sisimiut) and Denmark (Lyngby), and local innovation in Greenland facilitated by ARTEK. A conference on arctic roads was held in Sisimiut in March. It is a great pleasure that the Greenland Home Rule has decided to increase the support for ARTEK substantially in the years to come. The Danish and German governments have agreed to establish a fixed road and rail link across Femern Belt connecting Denmark and Germany. This strategic project will become a pivot of civil engineering in Denmark in the years to come, thus we are pleased that the link owner, Femern Belt AS, has asked DTU Civil Engineering to participate in the project. Organisation As a consequence of the merger between DTU and a number of national research institutes and laboratories DTU Civil Engineering s group on construction, facilities and urban management moved to DTU Management, and the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy (ICIEE) moved from DTU Mechanical Engineering to DTU Civil Engineering on January 1, Head of Department Jacob Steen Møller, PhD 05 Organisation External partners Other departments ADM Administration and IT TS Technical Staff BD Building Design BS Building Services IC Indoor Environment SE Structural Engineering CM Construction Materials GEO Geotechnics Head of Department Board of Head of Sections ARTEK HC ICIEE HC HC Project A PM Project B PM Project C PM MSc (CE) EM BSc (CE) EM BEng (AE) EM BEng (AE) EM Research and Innovation Committee Education Committee and Board of Education Managers Safety Committee Co-operation Committee BEng (CE) EM HC: Head of Centre PM: Project Manager EM: Education Manager : Project/Education Participant Figure: Organisation Diagram Study Programmes and Education Managers: Building Technology (BSc). Associate Professor Per Goltermann Arctic Technology (BEng). In Greenland, Associate Professor Hans Peter Christensen. In Denmark, Associate Professor Egil Borchersen Building Engineer (BEng). Associate Professor Egil Borchersen Civil Engineering (M.Sc). Associate Professor Kristian Hertz. Architectural Engineering (BEng). Associate Professor Lotte Bjerregaard Department of Civil Engineering hosts the following centres: The International Research School for Civil Engineering. Head of Department Jacob S. Møller. ARTEK, Arctic Technology Centre. Professor Arne Villumsen. ICIEE, Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy. Professor Bjarne W. Olesen. The Advisory Board: Professor (adj.) Louis Becker Architect MAA, AIA, RIBA Design Director, Partner, Henning Larsen Architects. CEO Ingelise Bogason, ALECTIA. Division Director Niels Kjeldgaard, MTHøjgaard. Head of Office Lasse Sundahl, Danish Enterprise and Construction Authority. Senior Vice President Carsten Winther, Group Technology, Rockwool International. 06 Selections from 2007 A new research centre is established at DTU Many organizations and institutions have participated in the formation of the new centre at DTU. The centre aims to create a lasting and highly qualified environment for Facilities Management research at DTU in particular and in Denmark in general Associate professor Per Anker Jensen Head of Centre for Facilities Management In 2007 it was decided to establish a new research centre concerning Facilities Management (FM) at DTU. The purpose is to strengthen research within this relatively new subject. FM concerns the management of the physical surroundings for the activities in an organisation and has developed as a new field of practice since 1990 in Denmark. FM represents a new paradigm compared to the traditional view on building operation and maintenance with a technical focus on buildings. DTU Civil Engineering introduced FM in the department s strategy from A pre-project was made in agreement with the private Danish foundation Realdania and carried out at the Department of Civil Engineering from March to September The result was a plan for the research centre and in October 2007 the Realdania adopted the plan together with a donation of more than 3 million over a five year period. Research profile A central part of the plan for Centre for Facilties Management (CFM) is the definition of the research profile and themes. The profile is in short defined as research in: Space for humans Buildings with user value Property and infrastructure, that facilitates. The main focus of the centre is the interrelationships between physical environments and social activities and how professionally managed and serviced physical surroundings can support and improve the conditions and activities of humans and organizations. CFM aims to create new knowledge and insight that can contribute to the strategic thinking about the built environment in relation to visions for the development of organisations and the needs of the users. Seven project From the beginning the following seven projects are planned: 1. Workplace Management 2. Facilities for Creative Environments 3. Implementation of Operational Knowledge in Building Projects 4. Sustainable Facilities Management 5. ICT-based Innovation in Facility Management Supply Chain 6. The Market for Facilities Management in Denmark 7. Strategic Partnerships within Facilities Management CFM was initiated New Year 2008 with a physical and administrative base at a new Department for Planning, Innovation and Management at DTU, but CFM involves a number of other research institutions. The centre has a governance structure with a steering committee chaired by head of department Jacob Steen Møller, DTU Civil Engineering. The steering committee is supported by an advisory scientific committee with two professors from Norway and Sweden. As head of the centre I am responsible for the day to day management and administration of CFM. CFM aims to create a lasting and highly qualified environment for FM research at DTU in particular and in Denmark in general. One of the measures is to start a number of PhD studies and it is expected that the results will be used in developing the teaching in Facilities Management at DTU and other educational institutions. The research will be mostly practice oriented and close collaboration with companies and organizations is planned. The opening of the new centre was accompanied by jazzmusic 07 Selections from 2007 Electrochemistry for preservation of cultural heritage A PhD project at DTU Civil Engineering is initiated due to a specific demand: a cheaper and more efficient method to extract the damaging salts in church vaults PhD Inge Rörig-Dalgaard Section for Construction Materials An item in the news in September 2003 pointed out the need for a cheaper and more efficient method for avoiding deterioration of the church murals and thereby the cultural heritage. Many church murals are damaged by salt in the vaults, and restoration is simply too expensive for some local parochial church councils, who has the ownership and the expenses.financial support from the Villum Kann Rasmussen and Realdania foundations made it possible to initiate a PhD project on the subject at the DTU Civil Engineering. The method By application of direct current, a DC field, to a moist, porous material ion (dissolved salt) extraction will occur at high ion concentrations and water transport in case of low ion concentrations. The principle of using electrochemistry for water transport and salt extraction from masonry has been known in Denmark and several other European countries for decades. However, due to a lack of documentation, such methods are not recommended for use by independent research institutes. Further more there are side effects from the application current that needs to be handled in a proper way before the electrochemical methods are safe to use. In case of ion transport in an electric field the basic principle is simple attraction towards the electrodes in a liquid. Meanwhile the method is influenced from water content, ionic mobility, applied current, the non-uniform current distribution (figure) and especially electrode reactions. By electrode reactions the electrons in the electrodes are transformed to ions in the solutions, resulting in decomposition of the electrode material, acid/base production and decreased efficiency. The invention Water transport caused by an electric DC field in porous building materials is more complicated, because the water transport is proportional to the inner surface charge of the material. This means that the water transport is varying for each specific material. In case of bricks for example the inner surface charge is related to the original clay mixture and burning conditions. Documentation therefore includes extensive material characterization. Benefiting from previous and present electrokinetic research at DTU Civil Engineering on soil, wood, fly ash and harbour sediments made it possible to overcome the side effects from the electrode reactions though new developments. Presently an inven- 08 DTU Civil Engineering is planning a pilot plan experiment on church murals in the Birds room at the Carmelite monastery in Helsingør. The murals are damaged by salt and restoration is essential to save the cultural heritage tion is taken over by DTU and the patent application is just about to be submitted. Proven in laboratory Through developments with single bricks it was possible to overcome the side effects and a high reduction in salt content from 1.0 wt% to a very low an unproblematic content of 0.01wt% was reached. On the basis of the present project the method is now considered proven in laboratory scale by advising engineers and researchers. An experiment in a larger scale on a wall section has been carried out too, showing encouraging results. Shortly, a pilot plant experiment will be initiated at the Carmelite monastery in Helsingør in the so-called Birds room where presence of the salts is thought to be the main reason for deterioration of the painting. The PhD project is completed primo October The electrochemical method for salt removal is not only applicable for church vaults. It can also be used for salt extraction from infected masonry of normal houses and a pilot plant for such treatment is seen here 09 Selections from 2007 A new shading system lights the dark and saves energy DTU Civil Engineering has designed a solar shading device that reduces the energy demand in glazed buildings by reducing the solar gains and improving the utilisation of daylight Fig. 1 The solar shading system with the lamellas in daylight redirecting position. Fig. 2 The solar shading system with the lamellas in shading position. Research assistant Jacob Birck Laustsen Section for Building Physics The increasing need for energy savings and good daylight conditions in buildings brings about large challenges when designing facades for future buildings. The widespread use of highly glazed facades in office buildings results in large cooling demands which must be reduced with efficient solar shading devices. At the same time good daylight conditions are required in order to save energy for lighting and provide good visual indoor climate. In buildings with large room depth compared to the window area, the daylight level is often insufficient in the back of the room to obtain a daylight factor of two percent. Furthermore the poor daylight conditions are worsened by the traditional fixed solar shading systems often used in modern glazed office buildings. Therefore there is a need for combined systems of flexible solar shading and light directing devices that, in addition to reducing the solar gain, will optimise the distribution and utilisation of the daylight. Such a solar shading system was developed at DTU Civil Engineering based on the idea of professor Svend Svendsen, and a full scale prototype mounted on a glass façade fitted in a test room at DTU (fig. 1 and 2). Shading system The shading system consists of variable horizontal glass lamellas with high reflective coating. The lamellas can be rotated in different positions depending on the requirements for solar shading or improved daylight conditions. On sunny days the lamellas are rotated into vertical position acting as an extra layer of solar control glass reducing the solar energy gain, but still allowing a good view out. On overcast days the lamellas are rotated 30 degrees with the reflective surface upwards. In this position the light from the sky is reflected into the room, up in the ceiling and further back in the room where the light is most needed (fig. 3). Daylight measurements on the glass lamella system under overcast sky show that the daylight factor is reduced close to the façade where there is plenty of daylight. In the meantime the daylight factor, with the lamellas, is unchanged or even higher in the back of the room (fig. 4). Improved indoor climate Consequently the light directing glass lamellas provide a better distribution of the daylight in the room resulting in improved visual indoor climate and reduced energy demand for electric lighting compared with traditional non transparent lamella systems. Under sunshine conditions the illuminance level in general and the solar gains are reduced resulting in energy savings for cooling and ventilation. The same promising results have been found in preliminary calculations. Thus, the presented solar shading system is able to reduce the energy demand for cooling by controlling the solar gains and still maintaining good daylight conditions and a satisfactory view out. The project is carried out in co-operation with the Danish Building Research Institute. Fig. 4 Daylight factor [%] Daylight factor at workplane Fig. 4 Measured daylight factors for overcast sky. Blue: No lamellas. Red: reflecting glass lamellas tilted 30 degrees Fig. 3 Principle of the light directing lamellas Distance from window [m] No shading Glass Fig. 3 10 Selections from 2007 Simulated flights improve the indoor environment in aircraft A study at the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy at DTU shows that even low levels of ozone in an aircraft cabin causes symptoms such as eye and nasal irritation, smarting eyes and headache. Peter Strøm-Tejsen, PhD International Cent
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