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Digital Signals, Frequently Asked Questions (and Answers)
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  -----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----Hash: SHA1Digital Signals FAQ Version: 5.0 +--------------------------+ | |Last Update: Aug 23, 1997 | | | | | | ||| ||| | |Copyright (C) 1995,1996,1997 by Stan Scalsky | ||| ||||| ||||| ||| |Copyright (C) 1995,1996,1997 by Mike Chace | ||||||||||||||||||||||| |sscalsk@mail.ameritel.net | ------------------------ |mikec@praxis.co.uk | D I G I T A L R U L E S | +--------------------------+Portions Updated 21-Apr-2001 by Worldwide Utility News- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------Changes made for Version 5.0- - Added LESW, new 39-tone modem, HELLSCHREIBER, Mazielka, DGPS, CODAN- - Enhanced VFT section, fixed CLOVER-2000 tbl errors, updated MS5- - MIL188, COQ-82, Twinplex, RAC-ARQ, CROWD36, IRA-ARQ, PSK- - New Decoder info on Code 3 Gold, Wavecom W4100DSP and W41pc, Shareware- - New Section - ACF Summary- - New Appendix sectionChanges made for Version 4.0- - New modes info, 36-50, 4+4, 1200-FSK, NATO, VFT, PSK and mystery modes- - New Reordered VHF info, added new FLEX, POCSAG, ERMES, NEC-D3 info- - New info added for Amateur modes- - Expanded Alphabet Tables- - SELCAL info added w/New Table- - References section updated- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------This Signals FAQ is a collaborative effort, maintained by Stan Scalsky andMike Chace. Any questions, comments or corrections will gladly be accepted.The authors imply no guarantee on this information and do not claim to beexperts or professionals in the field of signal monitoring. All informationhas been gathered from public domain sources, manufacturers documents, decoderdocumentation, real time analysis and any radio related publication that caresto write about digital signals. We have tried to research for correctness eachmode listed but it must be said that there are a lot of inaccuracies and dis-information present in the mainstream press. It is therefore a safe assumptionto assume that those inaccuracies could also appear here. Many thanks to those of you who post logs, information and answer stupid questions in the various forums that cover digital signals - you know who you are. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * NOTICE: All contributors of information, tidbits, comments and corrections will be considered confidential when constructing this document. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * A word of Caution: the rules about listening to signals not intended for   you applies here. The contents of many signals might be considered sensitive by the party sending and the reception of such signals may be illegal in your country. The authors neither condone or encourage such acts * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *I would like to solicit material, to be included later, on any other analysistechniques and/or DF techniques the utilities community is currently using.- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TABLE OF CONTENTSSection 0 - IntroductionSection 1 - Modes on Shortwave 1-A. Single tone systems 1-B. Synchronous data block systems 1-C. Packet-like systems/Asynchronous data block systems 1-D. Multi-tone systems/MFSK systems 1-E. FAX-like systems 1-F. SSTV modes 1-G. Synchronous bit stream systems 1-H. Asynchronous bit stream systems 1-I. Multi-channel systems 1-J. Phase Shift Keying systems 1-K. Mystery systemsSection 2 - Modes on VHF 2-A. VHF Data Signals 2-B. Special Amateur Digital/Video Modes 2-C. VHF SELCAL and Analog Paging Systems 2-D. VHF Digital Paging Signals 2-E. VHF Two-Way Paging SignalsSection 3 - Baud Rate Summary TableSection 4 - ACF Summary TableSection 5 - System Parameters Summary Tables Table 5-A - Synchronous Data Block Systems Table 5-B - Asynchronous Data Block Systems Table 5-C - Asynchronous Bit Stream Systems Table 5-D - Synchronous Bit Stream Systems Table 5-E - Multi-tone/MFSK/PSK Systems Table 5-F - Twinplex Parameters Table 5-G - Alphabets Table 5-H - Crowd-36 Tones and Alphabet Table 5-I - 5/6 Tone Paging Parameter TablesSection 6 - What decoders are available 6-A. Professional Units 6-B. Hobbyist Units 6-C. Public Domain Units 6-D. VHF Specific UnitsSection 7 - References 7-A. WWW Resources 7-B. Magazines and Books 7-C. Frequency Databases 7-D. Tape & CD ReferencesSection 8 - Appendix 8-A. Abbreviations 8-B. Emission Classification- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------  Section 0 - IntroductionThis Signals FAQ is designed to give utility listeners a sampling of thekinds of signals and sounds available on shortwave/vhf radio today along with information on the available equipment needed to understand, analyzeor identify these signals. Our primary focus is to present the parametersthat define the most commonly heard systems as an aid for utility monitorsand not an exhaustive discussion of HF digital signalling theory. It is also our intention to give monitors a best guess clue as to who the user of an unconfirmed signal may be.With conditions being dismal over the last few years coverage of Utility Listening, especially Digital Utilities, has been dropped from most ofthe main stream shortwave magazines. But in and of itself, Digital Utilitylistening is inherently more difficult than regular shortwave listening.The possibility of decoding the signal received adds another level ofcomplexity. This FAQ is an attempt to let those beginners who are thinking of or wondering what digital signals can be received and decoded and maybe provide the more advanced listener with a little more information to identifythose unknowns. Here in lies the basic problem with digital utility listening - lack of information. Many systems are used by Military or Diplomatic Services and information on the specifics of a particular mode are impossible to find, even from the manufacturer. Many are considered proprietary, but that doesn't mean that a signal can not be identified! With the proper tools a given signal can be identified via the way it sounds (aurally) or how it looks (visually). Most decoders that include some kind of signal analysis can ID a signal by bit-pattern or baud rate. Many signals have a unique baud,i.e. 300 baud packet, 240 baud HC-ARQ or 164.5/218.3 ROU-FEC. Once a signal isidentified there are many decoders that can print the traffic for you but keepin mind various kinds of encryption are commonly found in use with these signals. Encryption types include figure group or letter group messages and even random bit-masking or bitstream encryption, which looks like a continuousstream of random characters. You may often read the term on-line and off-line used in conjunction with various encryption schemes. Generally, off-lineencryption is taken to mean groups of letters or numbers (most usually groupsof five), whereas on-line schemes just appear as a continuous stream of randomcharacters.Keep in mind that you must be able to find a signal before you can apply the power of the decoder on the signal for identification and possible decoding.Most signals found on the airwaves today are obvious with easily distinguish-able sounds, from chirping to two tone FSK to musical multitone MFSK, but as communication technology develops this will most likely change. It issafe to say that the more efficient a modulation/coding method is, the morenoise like it must become. I have heard it said in some digital groups that Any sufficiently advanced communication is indistinguishable from noise .And now a word about decoders... There are many kinds of data decoders available ranging from public domainpackages to professional dedicated units. Prices vary from free up to veryexpensive and price is dependent on how much you want to be able to decode and what tools are available for signal analysis and identification. Publicdomain packages, while good, can not compete with the capability providedby the more expensive dedicated data decoder unit. It is safe to say thatprice goes up with increased capability in this market - be prepared tospend some big money if you want to cover a lot of modes. A good rule ofthumb is that a top-spec decoder will cost as much as a top-spec radio, i.e.  upwards of 2,000 dollars. You'll also need to decide upon whether to buy a stand-alone decoder or one that requires a computer to run. The latter option will of course increase the cost if you don't already possess a machine, but does add flexibility to a decoder. See the Decoders reference in Section 5for unit specifics on capability and pricing.What should you look for in a decoder? Some useful features include:- - Signal Identification- - Accurate baud rate measurement- - Correlation Bit Analysis- - Variety in modes decoded/identified- - Ability to save captured text (disk and printer)- - Tools for analysisYou can't beat a good Signal Identification Mode, both the Wavecom units and Hoka units include this option. Also, more recently some Trialware software(RadioRAFT) is including Signal Identification. A good Signal Identification mode simplifies the task of figuring out what mode is currently tuned, but keep in mind that even the best Identification mode is not always 100% correct.A common problem is that some keying systems share common idle characteristics(for example: SWED-ARQ, SITOR-A and TWINPLEX or SITOR-B and POL-ARQ) and active traffic is needed to correctly identify the exact mode. Also the presence of local interference, various propagation effects, or a noisy signalcan make it difficult to correctly identify. Universal decoders do not includean Identification mode.Accurate measurement of baud rate is another vital capability. Many modes can be accurately identified on baud rate alone because many rates are unique to a keying system. It also provides the opportunity to fingerprint a signal,system or the user. For example, the Hoka decoders can measure baudrateaccurately to 3 decimal places in the presence of a quality signal but alsodo well on marginal signals, eventually settling down on a reasonablemeasurement. If your signal is full of noise you might not see 3 decimal placesbut at least on Hoka decoders you will have displayed those decimal places thatmake sense - a very nice feature. Universal decoders have trouble with accuratebaud rate measurement on the faster keying systems (for example: 192 ARQ-E) andnoisy signals can be particularly confusing resulting in some very odd numbers.I don't have any direct experience with the Wavecom line of decoders so I willnot offer a comparison here. See the Baud Rate Summary Table in Section 3 forfurther information.Autocorrelation Bit is a technique that samples the incoming digitized bit stream and presents the data as a graph of bit occurrences plotted against time. This will show when patterns occur within a signal, allowing you todetermine the number of bits in a character frame (this is commonly referred to as the ACF), giving you another piece of information when working out an unidentified system. This kind of analysis tool reveals cycle period and showswhen there are NO patterns in a signal indicating an encrypted or randombit-masked signal, allowing you to move quickly onto more productive signals.Hoka and Wavecom decoders include autocorrelation bit modules. See the ACFSummary Table in Section 4 for further information.Mode variety is a personal preference. I would like to have a module forany mode I can receive in the spectrum! While not possible or realistic Iwill take as many as I can get. I find there is nothing more frustratingthan being able to receive a clean signal and then not being able to identify or decode it (ignoring the problem of encrypted signals for themoment). As of this writing it seems that Hoka offers the largest varietyof modes, followed by Wavecom and finally Universal. See the manufacturers
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