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Designation: E 125 – 63 (Reapproved 1997) Standard Reference Photographs for Magnetic Particle Indications on Ferrous Castings 1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation E 125; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or rea
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  Designation: E 125 – 63 (Reapproved 1997) Standard Reference Photographs for Magnetic Particle Indications on Ferrous Castings 1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation E 125; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of srcinal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon ( e ) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense. These Reference Radiographs have been approved to replace MIL-M-11473 (ORD). These Reference Photographs 2 have been reproduced through the courtesy of the Steel Founders’Society from photographs obtained from its member companies. 1. Scope 1.1 This collection of reference photographs covers typesand degrees of discontinuities occurring in steel castings andother types of ferrous castings detectable by the dry powdermagnetic particle method.1.2 These reference photographs are intended to assist in theclassification of those discontinuities revealed in ferrous cast-ings subjected to magnetic particle inspection.1.3 These reference photographs are intended to be used forpurposes of comparison with the magnetic particle indicationsobserved on actual castings. 2. Referenced Documents 2.1  ASTM Standards: E 709 Guide for Magnetic Particle Examination 3 2.2 ASTM Adjuncts:Reference Photographs for Magnetic Particle Indications 2 3. Identification 3.1 The types of discontinuities covered by the referencephotographs 3 are listed and described in Table 1. Each type of discontinuity is designated by Roman numerals I through VIIIas given in the table.3.2 The degrees of discontinuity severity, in increasingorder where applicable, are denoted by numbers 1 through 5. N OTE  1—To avoid any misunderstanding, it should be pointed out thereis no correlation between degrees of the various defects. For instance,Degree 3 of Type I is not equivalent to Degree 3 of Type II. 3.3 Each reference photograph is identified with the propernumber and letter designation. 4. Preparation 4.1 The reference photographs represent magnetic particleindications as found on production steel castings. They repre-sent the actual size of the indications and the procedurefollowed was in accordance with Guide E 709. The peak magnetizing current employed was from 600 to 800Aand prodspacing from 4 to 10 in.4.2 The white line indications as illustrated in most of thephotographs were obtained by painting the casting area with aslurry of lamp-black in kerosene, gasoline, or alcohol. A graymagnetic powder is then used. The result is a white indicationunder normal photographic methods.4.3 The black line indications result from applying redmagnetic powder to the casting surface and photographing themagnetic particle indications. 5. Basis for Use of Reference Photographs 5.1 These reference photographs are intended for use whenthey are specified in the inquiry, contract, order, materialspecifications, or applicable code, and when the limiting classof severity is mutually agreed upon by the manufacturer andthe purchaser. It is admitted that it is impossible to rigidlyinterpret magnetic particle indications on castings to a set of photographic references; consequently there is a need for closecooperation between the manufacturer and the purchaser.5.2 Unless otherwise specified all accessible surfaces of thecasting shall be inspected. On many castings, however, onlycertain areas are sufficiently critical to justify this type of inspection. In these cases the locations to be inspected shall bespecifically agreed upon.5.3 The severity class and the number of castings madefrom the same pattern to be given magnetic particle testingshall constitute a part of the inquiry, contract, or order, or shallbe as specified in the material specification or applicable code.5.4 The limiting size and shape of the unit area to beinspected shall be established by the applicable code or bymutual agreement of the manufacturer and the purchaser.When more than one type of discontinuity appears in thespecified area, agreement on this situation should be estab-lished.5.5 These indications, generally, represent evidence of sur-face discontinuities and any deductions or conclusions withregard to depth or extent of the interior nature of the discon-tinuity must be based on exploration by other test methods. 1 These reference photographs are under the jurisdiction of ASTM CommitteeE-7 on Nondestructive Testing and are the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeE07.03 on Magnetic Particle and Penetrant Testing.Current edition approved in 1963. Published 1963. Originally published asE 125 – 63. Last previous edition E 125 – 63 (1985) e 1 . 2 These reference photographs are available on four large charts arranged foreach type of discontinuity. The charts are available fromASTM Headquarters. OrderPCN 12-501250-00. 3  Annual Book of ASTM Standards , Vol 03.03. 1 Copyright © ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.  6. Keywords 6.1 discontinuities; ferrous castings; indications; magneticparticle indications; magnetic particle inspection; photographs;reference photographs; steel castings TheAmerican Society for Testing and Materials takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn.Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.This standard is copyrighted byASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA19428-2959, United States.Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website (www.astm.org). TABLE 1 Types of Discontinuities Type Type of Discontinuity Degree Figure No. A DefinitionI Linear discontinuities (hot tears andcracks)1 I-1a, I-1b and I-1c Ragged lines of variable width. May appear as a single jaggedline or exist in groups. They may or may not have a definiteline of continuity. They usually srcinate at the castingsurface and generally become smaller as they go deeper.I-2a, I-2b and I-2c2 I-3a, I-3b and I-3cI-4a, I-4b and I-4c3 I-5a, I-5b and I-5c45(3 examples each)II Shrinkage 1 to 5 II-1, II-2, II-3, II-4 and II-5 Appears as a jagged area or irregular patches. Shrinkage is asubsurface discontinuity that may be brought to the surfaceby machining or other methods of metal removal.III Inclusions 1 to 5 III-1, III-2, III-3, III-4 andIII-5Isolated, irregular or elongated variations of magnetic particlesoccurring singly, in a linear distribution or scattered at ran-dom in feathery streaks. The indications are the result ofthe presence of sand, slag or oxides in the surface metal.IV Internal chills and unfused chaplets 1 to 5 IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4 andIV-5A uniform line or band outlining the object and indicating lackof fusion between the metal object and the casting.V Porosity 2 examples V-1 and V-2 Appears as rounded and elongated clusters of magnetic par-ticles of various sizes; scattered at random.VI Welds:Weld porosityIncomplete penetrationUndercuttingInclusions in weldCrater cracking5 examplesVI-1VI-2VI-3VI-4VI-5Incomplete fusion and penetration appears as a straight con-tinuous or intermittent linear indication. Porosity, inclusionsand linear discontinuities in welds appear as describedabove.VII False Indications: 5 examplesProd pattern VII-1Powder lodged in surface depres-sionVII-2Particles dropped from cables VII-3Chisel marks VII-4Wrinkles VII-5VIII Magnetic Anomalies: 5 examplesAdhering scale VIII-1Magnetic writing VIII-2High external magnetic field VIII-3Junction of materials of differentpermeabilityVIII-4Powder build up at sharp fillet VIII-5 A See Footnote 2. E 125 2
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