Effect of Salary and Stress on Job Satisfaction of Teachers in District Sialkot, Pakistan

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IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) Volume 15, Issue 2 (Sep. - Oct. 2013), PP e-issn: , p-issn: Effect of Salary and Stress on Job Satisfaction
IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) Volume 15, Issue 2 (Sep. - Oct. 2013), PP e-issn: , p-issn: Effect of Salary and Stress on Job Satisfaction of Teachers in District Sialkot, Pakistan SaqibUsman, M. Tahir Akbar, Dr. MuhammedRamzan (M Phil scholar) (M Phil scholar) (Ph. D) Superior University Lahore, Pakistan. Abstract: Objective of the Study The objective of the study was to check which factors contribute to job satisfaction of teachers in various colleges of Sialkot. Methodology Questionnaires were sent to 100 teachers and 87 were returned by respondents. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and correlation and regression was also applied. Results From two independent variables only salary of the teachers was significantly affecting the job satisfaction of teachers. Conclusion and Recommendation It can be concluded that management of these colleges should pay attention to salary of the teachers to increase job satisfaction of the teachers. Limitations of the Study Due to resource constraints and time limitations, only limited numbers of surveys were distributed in Daska (sub-division of District Sialkot).To obtain more accurate results about overall condition of job satisfaction more surveys could be distributed to other sub divisions and districts of Pakistan. I. Introduction This paper is about measuring job satisfaction of teachers of colleges in Sub division (Daska) of District Sialkot, Pakistan. The importance of this paper can be described as teachers are the backbone of any country. If teachers are fully satisfied with their jobs they would sincerely and passionately teach their students who would then serve the country and the whole world as well. But if teachers are not satisfied with their jobs they can intentionally or unintentionally be a source of loss for the nation because they may not put their fullest attention to this delicate job. According to Briones, Elena, Tabernero, Carmen, Arenas and Alicia (2010) students are one of the important assets of any society. Well-being of society depends upon its students because these are the people who will take the responsibility of the success of the society in future and in achieving this goal teachers role is extremely important. Teachers are the source of guidance in all the crucial steps in academic life of the students. People are interested to work in institutions where they feel satisfied. II. Literature Review Job Satisfaction It has been generally noticed that the teachers in private sector colleges are not satisfied with their jobs due to the issue of job security and low salary and some other reasons. This paper will attempt to explore whether these general statements are true or not. And if teachers of private or even public sector colleges are dissatisfied with their jobs, what are the causes that contribute to this job dissatisfaction among teachers? Once these reasons are identified, proper actions may be taken by these colleges to improve the job satisfaction of teachers. As there is a positive correlation between education level of the people of a country and its economic growth, so it is very important that teachers should be utmost satisfied with their jobs so that they can deliver their best. Habib Ahmad, Khursheed Ahmad and Idrees Ali Shah (2010) defined job satisfaction as how much happy an individual is with his/her job. According to Locke (1976) job satisfaction could be a pleasurable emotional state that results from one s job experiences. Abiodun, M. Gesinde andgbadebo, O. Adejumo (2012) described satisfaction as a term commonly used to describe an individual s specific condition in which he or she finds himself/ herself at a particular time. 68 Page Satisfaction can be achieved when a person performs what he/she likes to do in a particular organization (Abiodun, et. al, 2012). From a customer point of view Lornah C. NakeraSirima and Moses WesangulaPoipoi (2010) state that when customer satisfaction increases profits of the company also increase. Previous research has suggested that employees are the greatest assets of the organization and if customers are satisfied then employees should also be made satisfied with their jobs (Poipoi et al 2010). Habib Ahmad, et al, (2010) emphasized that organizational behavior puts so much weight on job satisfaction that is why this is studied at the most. Affect theory, Dispositional theory, Motivation-Hygiene theory and Job characteristics model are some of the theories that are found in the literature of job satisfaction. Creation, innovation and coming up with breakthroughs is closely linked to job satisfaction of employees that helps institutions to rise and change according to market requirements (Shun-Hsing, Ching- Chow Yang, Jiun-Yan Shiau and Hui-Hua Wang 2006). So job satisfaction is an important variable that must be given high importance in an organizational set up. There have been several studies into job satisfaction which investigate the impact of demographic characteristics such as age, gender, tenure, cadre and education but the evidence tends to be mixed, with positive and negative relationships sometimes identified for the interactions between the same variables(habib Ahmad, et al2010). Salary If organizations want to retain competitive employees, they must be able to provide them good working conditions, competitive salaries, employment security and autonomy(akram, 2012). Akram, (2012)further concludes that financial aspects especially salary is the most important among above variables because each employee needs a livelihood to support his/ her family. Kabir and Parvin(2011) found that there are many variables that can affect job satisfaction of a person including salary and fringe benefits, just system of promotion, working environment quality, leadership, the work tasks and socializing.andrew Clark et al (1996)have observed highly significant U-shaped relationship between pay satisfaction and job tasks satisfaction for job satisfaction.according tomuhammad Rafiq, (2012)for high performance and organizational growth, rewards must be provided to employees. They further examined the effect of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards on employee job satisfaction and concluded that extrinsic rewards significantly affect the job satisfaction level of employees in call centers. Using Herzberg's hygiene factors and motivators Waheed and Tan Teck-Hong, (2011) found that hygiene factors(working environment, recognition) significantly affect the job satisfaction level of sales force. They also discovered the relationship between salary and job satisfaction including a mediating variable love for money and identified that the employees who give more importance to money if they receive a pay increase they would be more satisfied with their job. Kabir et al (2011) evaluated job satisfaction of employees in the pharmaceutical sector of Bangladesh by taking into account the effect of type of pharmaceutical, experience, age, and attitudes of gender on job satisfaction. The results of study proved that relations with peers, work efficiency, supervision and salary significantly affect the level of job satisfaction of employees. Oyebamiji Florence Funmilola (2013) discovered that job satisfaction dimensions jointly and independently predict job performance as pay, the quality of the supervisor-subordinate relationship,employees opportunities for promotion significantly affect the job satisfaction and performance of employees.vieira and Serrano (2005)examined low and high paid workers job satisfaction in the European Union (EU). Their results show when low paid employees were compared to high paid employees, low paid employees showed a low level of job satisfaction, except in the UK. Their results also indicated that the gap between low paid employees and high paid employees job satisfaction is expanded in the Southern European countries. Stress Shun-Hsing, et al (2006) observed that university teachers find themselves in a profession that is highly stressful. Medium level of job satisfaction was observed byjose Miguel Tricas Moreno, (2010)during a study. This medium level of stress was due to the fact that quality of the working environment was being consistently improved. Jose Miguel Tricas Moreno, (2010) also observed that personality and temperament both contributed to the burnout and increasing stress of the employees. Azman Ismail, (2009)found that physiological stress has significant correlation with job satisfaction but psychological stress has no correlation with job stress. Azman Ismail, (2009) confirmed that occupational stress does predict the level of job satisfaction. Talib, (2009) conducted a research on Malaysian male Navy officers and found that occupational stress was significantly correlated with overall job satisfaction level of officers. The relationship between age, stress and job satisfaction was conducted by K. Chandraiah S.C. Agrawal, (2003)and it was concluded that young people faced more stress and less job satisfaction as compared to senior level employees between the ages of Page to 55 years. Javeed, (2012) identified that generally whole of the selected sample was facing job stress due to the factors such as extra workloads, pressure by employers and supervisors, insufficient communication, no recognition, unjust appraisal system, poor working conditions and not up to the mark salaries and other rewards. Javeed, (2012) further indicated that job stress due to these factors leads to counterproductive work behaviors and a strong correlation exists between stress and counterproductive work behaviors by employees. Regarding a specific job context Warn, (2002)conducted a research on naval officer trainees. This research showed that a general model of stress was not helpful to understand job stress and job satisfaction of employees in a specific context. Warn, (2002) recommended that other variables of stress should also be identified to assess the stress levels of employees. Anum Khan (2013)conducted a study to assess the stress levels of operational staff of Islamic Banks. They included age, gender, organizational climate and occupational stress as variables to determine the level of job satisfaction of employees of these banks. Anum Khan et al, (2013) concluded that job satisfaction was significantly affected by the organizational climate and occupational stress. Age having no impact on job satisfaction of employees but regarding gender males were more satisfied than females. A study conducted byeleni Jelastopulu, (2013)on nursing staff proved that work stress and job satisfaction are inversely related. Other variables included in the study were doctors and supervisors attention, self-respect and social respect. Eleni Jelastopulu, (2013) suggested that a conducive working environment needs to be there for nursing staff so that they can perform their duties without stress. Research study of Laura McCann, (2009) showed that both community and hospital pharmacists faced workloads, less human resources and stoppage in working as the most stressful aspects of the job. Along with pharmacists she also found quick changes in contracts and organizational settings as factors contributing to stress of pharmacists. Relationship between job stress and job satisfaction has been found byd.v.s(2012)and they concluded that a significant relationship exists between these two variables. They included in job stress dimensions job stress causes, job stress symptoms, job stress strategies and how to manage job stress. Research has also found that almost one third teachers think that teaching is highly stressful despite the fact that teachers like the teaching profession (Rune Høigaard Rune Giske& Kari Sundsli 2011). Despite the stress factor % of the teachers feel that teaching provides rewards and satisfies (Rune Høigaard Rune Giskeet al 2011). Student behavior also seriously disturbed new teachers work (Rune Høigaard Rune Giske et al 2011). It has been observed recently that for quality of education politicians, parents, and community are pressurizing teachers handsomely(kristen Ferguson, Lorraine Frost and David Hall, 2012). Theoretical Model Salary Stress Teacher Job Satisfaction Research Hypothesis H o : Salary and stress do not significantly affect job satisfaction of teachers in colleges. H 1 :Salary and stresssignificantly affect job satisfaction of teachers in colleges. III. Methodology Dependent variable for this research paper is job satisfaction. On the other hand independent variables are salary and work-related stress. The objective of this research paper is to determine which factors affect job satisfaction of teachers more or less in a college setting in Pakistan.To get the data on job satisfaction 100 questionnaires were sent to different teachers in different public and private colleges of Sub-Division (Daska) of District Sialkot. 87 questionnaires were returned with a response rate of 87 %. 5-Likert Scale was used in the questionnaire for independent and dependent variables. For independent variables (1=Strongly Disagree, 2=Disagree, 3=Uncertain, 4=Agree, 5=Strongly Agree).For dependent variable Likert Scale was (1=Highly dissatisfied, 2=Dissatisfied, 3=Somewhat satisfied, 4=Satisfied, 5=Highly satisfied). Survey is divided into two sections. Part one is demographic variables and part two independent and dependent variables. The survey includes all the independent and dependent variables as mentioned above. The questionnaire was adopted from Support Providing Employees Association of Kentucky (SPEAK), USA. Cron Bach s Alpha of the individual items in the questionnaire was The data were analyzed through SPSS v.16. Sample characteristics Names of the Colleges in which survey was distributed: 70 Page Government Degree College for Men, Daska, Sialkot. Government Degree College for Women, Daska, Sialkot. Superior College Daska, Sialkot. Nimble Institute of Modern Sciences, Daska, Sialkot. The following tables show the distribution of respondents gender, age, discipline, experience, public or private and salary. Gender of the Person Male Female The above table shows that there are 37% male teachers and 63% female teachers. Age of the Person The above table shows the ages of respondents. Most of them were in the group of and only 9% teachers were in the group of Discipline of the Study Science Commerce Arts % teachers were in the faculty of Arts and only 10% teachers were from commerce group. Job Experience Less than 1 year years years More than 10 years This is the most important table that shows that 79 % of the teachers were having less than 5 year experience. This experience could be a serious factor in determining the job satisfaction level of teachers. Public or Private Public Private The above mentioned table shows that 75% respondents were from public colleges and 25% respondents were from private colleges. Because in public sector there is no burden of work and also job security is available to public sector teachers, so this could be a good factor to consider while considering the job satisfaction level of teachers. Salary of the Person Salary Less than 20, ,000-29, ,000-39, ,000-60, More than 60, The above mentioned table shows the distribution of salary of teachers in different public and private sectorcolleges. In Sialkot District, public sector teachers enjoy high salaries but private sector teachers have to earn low salaries. Most of the teachers were in the group of Rs. 40,000-60,000. These may be public sector teachers. 71 Page IV. Results In our hypothesis we stated that we want to check the effect of salary and stress on job satisfaction of teachers. Following table provides an understanding of the correlations between these variables. Table 1 Correlations Overall Job Satisfaction Financial Rewards Stress Work Related Overall Job Satisfaction Pearson Correlation 1.522**.091 Sig. (2-tailed) N Financial Rewards Pearson Correlation.522** 1.218* Sig. (2-tailed) N Stress Work Related Pearson Correlation * 1 Sig. (2-tailed) N **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed) The correlations table shows that only salary (financial rewards) was significantly correlated with overall job satisfaction of teachers. We would further explain the relationship between these variables with the help of regression in the following tables. Table 2 Model Summary Std. Error of the Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Estimate 1.522a a. Predictors: (Constant), Stress work related, Financial rewards Table 3 ANOVA Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression a Residual Total a. Predictors: (Constant), Stress work related, Financial rewards b. Dependent Variable: Overall Job Satisfaction Table 4 Coefficients Standardized Unstandardized Coefficients Model Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) Financial Rewards Stress Work Related a. Dependent Variable: Overall Job Satisfaction Multiple regressions were conducted to testwhether salary and stress affected job satisfaction of the teachers in Sub-division (Daska) of Sialkot. Inter-correlations are presented in table 1.The combination of variables to predict job satisfaction fromfinancial rewards andwork-related stress was statistically significant for financial rewards, F (2, 84) is equal to 15.75, p .001. The beta coefficients are presented in table 4. Note that only financial rewards significantly predict job satisfaction when both variables are included. The adjusted R 2 value was This indicates that 25.5 % of the variance in job satisfaction was explained by the model. V. Discussion and Conclusion Financial rewards (salary) significantly affect job satisfaction. It means that if employees are not given proper salary in time, they would be highly dissatisfied with their jobs and may ultimately start thinking leaving the profession at all. This is due to the fact that cost of living is highly increasing in Pakistan. This is 72 Page consistentwith the results of the study that found thatjob satisfaction was significantly related with extrinsic rewards (salary and other benefits) (Muhammed zia Ur Rehman, 2010). Our analysis is further substantiated by the study which indicated that the rewards, motivation and job satisfaction of organizational members have a positive relationship of Saudi Arab s banking sector (Khawaja Jehanzeb, 2012). Similarly Akram (2012)found that employees in pharmaceutical industry are satisfied with their salary and are satisfied with their jobs. Above mentioned results show that stress is not significantly affecting the job satisfaction of teachers in this research. That may be due to the fact that teachers are new in the profession and most of the teachers were having less than 5 years experience. They may be passionate to do work. Employment conditions in Pakistan are not so good so teachers may find teaching opportunity very attractive. Our study is in consistent with the work of (Jose Miguel Tricas Moreno, 2010). They found that Services and Administration Staff from the University of Saragossa have minor stress levels and these employees have high self-respect. This study is in accordance with the work of Garman, (2004) who found that financial problems inversely affect the behaviors of employees at work. (Garman, 2004)also found that 20 percent of the employees were facing serious financial problems. The actual number of financially distressed employees in a particular workplace depends primarily on the makeup of the workforce, the educational level of the employees, their incomes and other variables. Diversity of the workforce, the education level of employees, income and other variables if included can actually tell the real number of employees facing financial problems (Garman, 2004). It is concluded that management of these colleges should pay high attention to financial rewards of teache
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