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   1   LABORATORY MANUAL FLUID MACHINE ME- 315 E www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com   2   LIST OF THE EXPERIMENTS PAGE NO S.NO. NAME OF THE EXPERIMENTS FROMTO 1 To study the constructional details of a pelton turbine and draw its fluid flow circuit.  2 To study the constructional details of a Francis turbine and draw its fluid flow circuit.  3 To study the constructional details of a Kaplan turbine and draw its fluid flow circuit.  4 To study the working and constructional details of Hydro-power plant (H.P.P.).  5 To study the constructional details and working of Hydraulic Ram.  6 To study the constructional details of a Centrifugal pump and draw its characteristics curve.  7 To study the constructional details of a Centrifugal Compressor.  8 To study the constructional details of Gear pump and draw its characteristic curve.  9 To study the constructional details of Reciprocating pump and draw its characteristic curve.  10 (a) To verify the momentum equation experimentally. (b) Comparison of change in force exerted due to shape of the vane.(Flat, Inclined and Curved).  11 To draw the following performance characteristics of pelton turbine: Constant head, Constant speed and Constant efficiency curves.   www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com   3 EXPERIMENT NO. 1 Aim : - To study the constructional details of a Pelton Wheel turbine and draw its fluid flow circuit. Apparatus Used : - Model of Pelton Wheel Turbine. Theory : Hydraulic machines are defined as those machines which convert either hydraulic energy (energy possessed by water) into mechanical energy or mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. Turbines are defined as hydraulic machines which convert hydraulic energy into mechanical energy. Hydraulic turbines are of different types according to specification and Pelton wheel or turbine is one of the types of hydraulic turbines. Pelton Wheel or Turbine : The Pelton wheel or Pelton turbine is a tangential flow impulse turbine. The water strikes the bucket along the tangent of the runner. The energy available at the inlet of the turbine is only kinetic energy. The pressure at the inlet and outlet of the turbine is atmospheric. The turbine is used for high heads and is named after L.A Pelton, an American Engineer. Constructional Details: - The main parts of the pelton turbine are: - 1.    Nozzle and flow regulating arrangement. 2.   Runner and buckets. 3.   Casing. 4.   Breaking Jet. www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com   4  1.    Nozzle and flow regulating arrangement: The amount of water striking the buckets of the runner is controlled by  providing a spear in the nozzle. The spear is a conical needle which is operated either by a hand wheel or automatically in an axial direction depending upon the size of the unit. When the spear is pushed forward into the nozzle the amount of water striking the runner is reduced. On the other hand if the spear is pushed back, the amount of water striking the runner increases. 2.   Runner with buckets: It consists of a circular disc on the periphery of which a number of buckets evenly spaced are fixed. The shape of the buckets is of a double hemispherical cup or bowl. Each bucket is divided into two hemispherical  parts by a dividing wall which is known as splitter. 3.   Casing: The function of the casing is to prevent the splashing of the water and to discharge water to tail race. It also acts as a safeguard against accidents. It is made of cast iron or fabricated steel plates. As pelton wheel is an impulse turbine, the casing of the pelton wheel does not perform any hydraulic function. 4.   Breaking Jet: When the nozzle is completely closed by moving the spear in the forward direction the amount of water striking the runner reduces to zero. But the runner due to inertia goes on revolving for a long time. To stop the runner in a short time, a small nozzle is provided which directs the Jet of water on the back of the buckets. This Jet of water is called breaking Jet. Working of Pelton wheel Turbine : The water from the reservoir flows through the penstocks at the outlet of which a nozzle is fitted. The nozzle increases the kinetic energy of the water flowing through the penstock by converting pressure energy into kinetic energy. At the outlet of the nozzle, the water comes out in the form of a Jet and strikes on the splitter, which splits up the jet into two parts. www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com
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