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BAR International Series 2581 (I) 2013 SOMA 2012 Identity and Connectivity Proceedings of the 16th Symposium on Mediterranean Archaeology, Florence, Italy, 1–3 March 2012 VOLUME I Edited by Luca Bombardieri, Anacleto D’Agostino, Guido Guarducci, Valentina Orsi and Stefano Valentini Published by Archaeopress Publishers of Britsh Archaeological Reports Gordon House 276 Banbury Road Oxford OX2 7ED England BAR S2581 (I) SOMA 2012. Identty and Conne
  BAR International Series 2581 (I)2013 SOMA 2012 Identity and Connectivity Proceedings of the 16th Symposium on Mediterranean Archaeology, Florence, Italy, 1–3 March 2012 VOLUME IEdited by Luca Bombardieri, Anacleto D’Agostino, Guido Guarducci, Valentina Orsi and Stefano Valentini  Published byArchaeopress Publishers of Brish Archaeological Reports Gordon House 276 Banbury Road Oxford OX2 7ED England BAR S2581 (I) SOMA 2012. Identy and Connecvity: Proceedings of the 16th Symposium on Mediterranean Archaeology, Florence, Italy, 1–3 March 2012. Volume I © Archaeopress and the individual authors 2013ISBN 978 1 4073 1204 0 (this volume)ISBN 978 1 4073 1205 7 (volume II)ISBN 978 1 4073 1206 4 (set of both volumes)Printed in England by Informaon Press, OxfordAll BAR tles are available from:Hadrian Books Ltd122 Banbury Road OxfordOX2 7BP England The current BAR catalogue with details of all tles in print, prices and means of payment is available free from Hadrian Books or may be downloaded from    Aegean Type Swords and Finds in Anatolia, Technology of Metals and Structures, Written Sources and the Dating of Trojan War Konstantinos Giannakos (University of Thessaly, Civil Engineering Department)   Abstract  In Hattu  !  a and the Land of Hatti, bronze swords of  Aegean type and other Mycenaean artifacts were found. Silver as a rare and precious metal is -probably- connected with Hattu  !  a and Hatti in Iliad. The technological level and know-how in Mycenaean Greece were extremely high both in construction works and  production of metallic objects: bronze, silver and iron. The archaeological evidence found in Hattu  !  a, Egypt, Greece and Cyprus and the Ancient Greek Literature are combined in an effort to register the exchange of technology among the countries around the Aegean Sea at the LBA. A linguistic dating of the epics is attempted and a proposition of the possible transcription of the name   #$  µ %  µ &'&  in Linear B is formulated. The archaeological evidence is compared to the descriptions in Homeric epics. Conclusions are derived for the exchanges among Mycenaeans, Cretans, Hittites and Egyptians, with the Aegean Sea being a connecting area. Since technological level and its products are irrefutable agents of the prosperity level of each era, they are used to estimate the probability of a naval expedition over  Aegean Sea during LBA. Finally a hypothesis for a  probable dating of Trojan War is attempted  .  Keywords Epics, Hattu ! a, sword, Mycenaeans, #$ µ % µ  &'& , Attarissiyas, Egypt, silver technology.   Introduction Homer, in Iliad and partly in Odyssey, described a naval military expedition of a coalition of Mycenaean Greeks with 1000 ships, across the Aegean sea, against Troy and its allies at the northwestern coast of Asia Minor. A long discussion about Trojan War, whether and when it took  place, is ongoing since the antiquity. There are two  possible dates for the Trojan War as derived by the destruction layers in Troy VIh c.  1300 BC and VIIa c.  1180 BC. However, another minor destruction could be verified in Troy VIf/g c.  1400 BC where an extended ‘house-cleaning’ was reported by Blegen. We have  proposed that this house-cleaning points to a change of dynasty in Troy supported by the Mycenaen Greeks (Trojan War?). We examine evidence from Hatti, Cyprus and Egypt and relate it to the prosperity and destruction  periods of Mycenaen palatial centers. The linguistic dating of the Homeric epics at an era earlier than 1400 BC also points to that direction. 15th-14th century BC Anatolia: Evidence related to   Mycenaean Activities 1   Various objects of Mycenaean influence were found in Hatti: - A Type B bronze sword at Hattu ! a dated at the period of Tud ( aliya II, 2  commemorating his victory over A !! uwa, mentioned also in his Annals, as well as Wilusiya/ )*+,-.  and Taruisa/ /0-1$ . - A silver bowl referring to the conquest of Tarwiza by a king Tud ( aliya (II). - One bronze sword at Izmir and one at Kastamonu, of Mycenaean type, dated c.  the same era, - A Mycenaean bronze spearhead at Ni 2 de of advanced technology   of l4th-13th century BC, - A ceramic bowl with a depiction of an Aegean(?) warrior bearing a boar’s tusk helmet at Hattu ! a dated at 1400 BC, - Fragments of wall paintings of Mycenaean technique in Büyükkale, - Imported Mycenaean pottery LHIIIA2 3  in Ma 3 at Höyük, in a LHIIIB context and - A few Mycenaean shreds in Hattu ! a and Kusakli (Thaler 2008, 293, 307-310) demonstrating the importance of hearth building like in the Mycenaean Palaces, as described in a Hittite ritual text dated at Tud ( aliya IV era, reconstructed from older sources. Several texts were also found in Hettitic archives: - Indictment   of Madduwatta  ,  notes that under Tud ( aliya's II reign, Attarissiya, brother of the king of A 44 iyawa,  performed raids against Lukka and Alasiya/Cyprus, in accordance to epics narrating Atreids' raids against Cyprus. Attarissiya, could be transliterated as ‘   ()*+,-.  ’ (Giannakos 2011a, 2011b). - A Letter of a king of A (( iyawa   (Beckman et al. , 2011, 134-139) to a Hittite king, refers that under Tud ( aliya's II reign, the King of  A // iyawa  ‘(a-)Ka-ga-mu-na- a  !  ’ owned the islands  ,  after a dynastic marriage. Janko 4  proposed that, if ‘(a-) Ka-ga-mu-na-a  !  ’  is to be equated with a Greek name, it is rather   #$  µ %  µ &'& . Iliad narrates that   #$  µ %  µ &'&  was King in many islands and in Argos (Ilias, 2-108). - The Alaksandu treaty,   refers that  Labarna  had conquered Arzawa and Wilusa. Afterwards, Arzawa  began war and Wilusa  /   01234.    defected from Hatti, but remained at peace. Later on Tud  / aliya  (II) campaigned against Arzawa but did not enter Wilusa  since they were 1  Details in Giannakos, 2011a, b, 2012, 7-44. 2  Absolute dates of Hittite Kings in Figure 1  and of Egyptian Pharaohs in Figure 2 . 3  Cline 2007, 197, ~1375-1340 BC. Figure 3  for dating of the periods in Mycenaean Greece. 4  According to Wiener 2007, 16-17, n.104, 113. Starke: ‘ Kadmos ’. 427    at peace. It does not mention  A // iyawa , probably because  by c. 1280 BC, Hittites   did not consider  A // iyawa  as serious power. - An Oracle Report   (Tud ! aliya's II   era): ‘Concerning the enemy ruler of A (( iya..... Result: favorable’. This unnamed enemy ruler of A (( iya is -almost certainly- Attarissiya attested in the Indictment. It clearly refers to a leader, or ruler of some kind, of A (( iya who performed warlike activities in Anatolia, Lycia and Cyprus. 5   Material Evidence from 16th-14th century BC Egypt and Cyprus The relations of Egypt with Aegean are recorded in the archaeological evidence which has been summarized in literature (Giannakos 2011a, 2011b, 2012): from the Hyksos period and Ahmose to the reigns of Thutmose I, Thutmose III, Hatsepsut, Amenhotep III, Akhenaten and Tutankhamun, c.  1600-1330 BC. In the famous list of Amenhotep III at Kom-el-Hetan, Keftiu, T/Danaja and the very well known Aegean places: Amnisos, Knossos, Kydonia, Mycenae, Thebes, Ilion etc are mentioned. Amenhotep's III close relations and his  particular sympathy to Achaean rulers is evident from remnants of his Palace at Malkata and his faience plaques at Mycenae (Philips 2007). Akhenaten performed two wars against Hittites in Syria before his sixth and at his fifteenth regnal years. This could offer an additional argument for a hypothesis of a possible alliance with Mycenaeans (Coleman and Manassa 2007, 198-199; Leahy 2001, 258; Schulman 1988, 54, 57) .  Gifts from T/Danaja -on the 42nd year of Thutmose III- are listed: ‘.. chief] of Tanaya: Silver: a jug of Keftiu workmanship along with vessels of iron ’ (Redford 2003, 96, n.226),   indicating possibly advanced technology in Crete and T/Danaja. An iron ring at Archanes is dated at 17th century BC.  It appears that the reading ‘iron’ is now widely preferred, … iron in this early stage was an extremely rare commodity, being difficult to work   (Kelder 2010, 36,105; Lucas 1948, 274; Ogden 2000, 167) and consequently of cutting-edge technology. There are also references for iron gifts to the Pharaoh in Amarna tablets (Lucas 1948, 268-275; Moran 1992, EA22, EA25; Ogden 2000, 166-168). In Tutankhamun's tomb, several iron objects were found. 6  The king of Cyprus wrote to Pharaoh Akhenaton (Moran 1992, 111, EA38): ‘  Indeed men of Lukki, year by year, seize villages in my own country’ .   Are these Lukki (and Danuna) forerunners (Giannakos, 2011a, 2012, 65) of the Sea Peoples? In the early 18th Dynasty heavily armed northern mercenaries appear in Egyptian documents and the incursion of pirates,  Dennen ,  Lukka and Sherden,  had  become so serious by the reign of Amenhotep III that the Egyptians constructed coastal forts and patrolled the 5  Beckman et al ., 2011, 4, 5, 71, 97, 98, 219, 225. Bryce 2005, 129-130: not officially recognized king of A  !! iya . Gurney 1990, 21, 38: an  Achaean Greek chieftain . Güterbock, 1983 200, 207: a lesser ruler not regarded as king . Niemeier 1999, 149: a Mycenaean aristocrat. 6  Coleman and Manassa (2007, 77, 240, n.148), refer that it was an early example of iron-working and it was not made from meteoric iron (Lucas 1948, 272; Muhly 2006, 22-25; Ogden 2000, 168). mouths of Nile (Coleman and Manassa, 2007, 203; Redford 1992, 242, 2006, 196; Shaw 2003, 322). Cyprus suffered a number of destructions around 1400 BC (Doxey 1987, 306), the era of Attarisiya: Enkomi was destroyed in c.  1425 BC rebuilt and destroyed again in 1375 BC. Kourion  was destroyed by fire. Phlamoudi ,  Nitovitika  and  Nikolidhes  were abandoned in a roughly contemporaneous era. Whatever the cause of the Cypriote destructions, they occurred at a point which immediately  preceded a notable influx of Mycenaean influence,  possibly even temporary control of the island, roughly around the date of Knossos' destruction on c. 1375. Tanaja is referred in Egyptian inscriptions up to the end of the reign of Tutankhamun. 7  After this period there is no written reference to Tanaja in Egyptian inscriptions until the Sea Peoples . Homer narrates that heroes  5$&$4+   had visited Egypt -isolated and not in hordes as the later Sea Peoples- either as friends or as raiders (Beckman et al. , 2011, 99, 97; Giannakos 2011a, b; Giannakos 2012, 67-68). This image is fitted rather to the era of Amenhotep’s III and not Ramesses’ II, III era. Rare Metal Silver: Hittites in Homeric epics?   The Ships' Catalogue, includes in Trojan allies   ‘  Halizones, from Alybe, where is the birth-place of silver  ’  , most probably the inside Halys river bent region (Giannakos 2011b). All the three main linguistic/racial groups of the Land of Hatti were present as allies of Troy in Iliad: Palaians/Paphlagones, Luwians /Lycians, and  Nesumnili/Nesites/Hatti probably as   )#6)47   #*&%82- . Hattu ! a and Hatti were sometimes written with the Sumerogram for silver  . The major objective of the trade since the Assyrian Colony period c. 2200 BC, was to obtain silver and gold from the Anatolian Plateau: 9 silver mines were inside Halys river bent. Three kings: Ramesses II, a King of Arzawa(?) and 5 uppilluliuma I connect Hatti with silver.   However in Greece, there has  been intensive exploitation, working and production of silver from Laurion and Cyclades mines since Late  Neolithic. Consequently,   )#6)47   #*&%82-  of Iliad does not represent the Mycenaean experience with silver exploitation, but was probably transmitted, as oral tradition for Anatolian Plateau  , to the   western Asia Minor. Dating the epics linguistically Iliad's final version is a blend of two narratives one sympathetic to the Trojans and focused on Hector as tragic hero and another to the Greeks. The story of Troy was first immortalized in hexameters some time between 1450-1050 BC. 8  An Asianic, specifically Hittite, ideal of unity among the groups representing four groups of fealty leaves its trace in a Greek literacy topos in the post-1200 7  Kelder 2010, 46,85; Philips 2007, 489-490: the graves at Mycenae, contain Egyptian artefacts not later than ~1318/1295 BC, with a few exceptions . Wachsmann 1987, 125: the contacts seems to cease with the reign of Tutankhamun . 8  Bachvarova 2008, 103, n.424. For Trojan War's earlier dating:  Morris 1989, 521; Vermeule 1986, 85, 206, 279, 297. More details for the linguistic dating of the epics in Giannakos 2012, 114-119. 428

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Jul 23, 2017
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