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   S    pi    nni    n   g PTJ February 2010 47  Entrepreneurs must fulfill many important requirements inorder to set up viable yarn manufacturing plants. Some of theserequirements are selection of most suitable site and machinerycombination, economic size of the unit and operational flexibility.However, once the plant has been installed and commissioned,spinning managers endeavour to achieve the required productquality at standard output rate. Therefore, it is necessary to main-tain production balance between preparatory, spinning and wind-ing stages and ensure the following parameters:  No section of any winding machine should be out of produc-tion due to shortage of yarn supply from the ring spinningshed.  Similarly, the ring spinning frame or any back processmachine should not be idle due to shortage of feed material.  There should not be an excessive stock of yarn, roving, sliverand blowroom laps, as accumulation of material at any pro-cessing stage may lead to temporary stoppage of the backprocess machine.  Machines should not be operated at maximum speed in orderto consume the accumulated stock of back process materials. 1 Economic size of the spinning unit The installed capacity of spindles for an economic size unit hasprogressively increased in Pakistan. During the eighties a spinningmill with an installed capacity of about 14000/15000 spindleswas considered to be an economic unit. However with the com-mencement of World Free Trade Regime (W.T.O) the textileindustry of Pakistan is facing multiple challenges. The textile andclothing products can find access in the international exportmarket only on the basis of the required quality and competitiveprice. With an escalation in the prices of all inputs, currently, aspinning unit with an installed capacity of about 20160 spindles isconsidered to be an economic unit. This would require installationof 40 Ring Spinning Frames with 504 spindles each. 2 Production program ring spinning Assuming that the installed capacity of the spinning mill is20,160 spindles comprising of 40 Ring Spinning Frames, the dailyproduction will depend upon the production program. A typicalproduction program for ring spinning machines is tabulatedbelow. 2.1. Simplex rames For the supply of roving to the ring shed operating in accor-dance with the above production program two types of rovinghanks have been selected. Roving hank of 0.80 for yarn countsof 10.20 Ne and 16.20 Ne. and roving hank of 1.0 for yarncounts of 20.20 Ne and 30.20 Ne. The number of hanks of rovingis generally kept as small as possible. The objectives are to facili-tate balancing of production, implementation of colour schemeand elimination of mixed yarn production. On the basis of theforegoing assumptions, the number of Simplex frames required tosupply roving to be ring shed are calculated as follows: 2.2 Drawing rames 2 Passage) Assuming waste of 0.50 % at the roving stage, productionrequired from the Drawing Frames works out as: 11471.93+26895.61) × 1.005 = 38367.54×1.005 = 38559.38 LBS Linear Density of finished sliver = 70 grains per yard = 0.119Delivery speed of Drawing Frames = 400 MPM.Production of one set of Drawing Frame (double delivery) perday at 85 % efficiency equals to:Assuming linear density of sliver at Breaker Drawing Frame isequal to 70 grains per yard, delivery speed equal to 400 MPMand waste at the Finisher Drawing Frames at 0.25 %, productionrequired from Breaker Drawing Frames works out at38559.38×1.0025 = 38655.78 LBS.Production of one Drawing Frame (Breaker) = 10712.82 LBS. Production balance in spinning mills Dr. H.R.Sheikh, professor, Emeritus, Textile Institute of Pakistan. Nominal yarn count  Particulars 10 16 20 30 Actual count (Ne)10.2016.2020.2030.20Spindle speed (RPM) 11,00016,00016,80017,500Twist factor4. per inch13.4116.9118.8823.36OPS 100% (ozs per spindle shift)20.4314.8411.196.3Efficiency %88929293Actual OPS17.9813.6510.305.86Production per Ring Frame perday – (504 Spindles ) in Lbs.1699.111289.93973.35553.77Allocation of ring frame262012Daily productioncount-wise (in Lbs.)3398.227739.58194676645.24Total Daily Production = 37250.04 Lbs. Average Yarn Count = 10.2×3398.22+16.2×7739.58+20.2×19467+30.2×6645.24 37250.04753962.6737250.04== 20.24 Ne Actual yarn count  Particulars10.2 &16.220.2 &30.2RemarksDaily yarnproduction (LBS) 11, 137.8026,112.24Production required fromsimplex frames with 3%waste in ring spinning.11,471.9326,895.61Hank of roving0.81.0Twist factor andturns per inch0.85/0.761.0/1.0Flyer speed (RPM)1,1001,100Delivery in inches perminute1,447,371,100100% production perspindle per day (LBS)86,1552.38Actual production/spindle/day73.2344.52Efficiency =85%No. of simplex framesspindles required156.66604.12No. of simplexframes required1.315.03Simplex framewith 120spindles each.Total number of Simplex frames = 6.34 or 7.0 400×1.0936×60×24×0.85×20.119840=10712.82 LBS.Number of Drawing Frames (Finisher) required38559.3810712.82= 3.6 say 4 sets.Number of Drawing Frames (Breaker required) = 38655.78 10712.82 = 3.61 say 4 sets.        S     p       i     n     n       i     n     g 48  PTJ February 2010 2.3. Cards Assuming waste at the Breaker Drawing Frames at 0.25 %,production required from the cards works out at =38655.78×1.0025 = 38752.419 LBS. Linear density of card sliver = 70 grains per yard = 0.119.Delivery speed = 145 MPM. Efficiency of card = 86 %.Usually 2 extra cards will be installed to add flexibility to thecarding process and take care of stoppage of any card for replace-ment of old wire. 2.4. Blowroom Daily production required from Blow Room Line @ 7 % wasteat the carding stage 38752.419 × 1.07 = 41465.09 LBS.Production required per hour = 1727.71 LBS = 783.68 KG.If Chute Feed System is not provided, number of scutchersrequired is calculated as follows:Diameter of Lap Roller = 9 inch.Speed of Lap Roller = 15 RPM.Linear density of Lap = I LB/yard, Efficiency = 85 % Hank of Lap = 0.00119 2.5 Cotton Required. The quantity of cotton required per day can be calculated isshown in the next column: 2.6. Auto – cone winding machines The ring cops produced on the Ring Spinning Frames are notmarketable. In order to produce cones which are marketable,winding of ring cops is carried out on Auto-Cone WindingMachines. The number of winding machines required is calculated as follows:Total number of drums required = 21.75+74.94+224.33+104.95= 425.97 Summary Process wise number of machines calculated above forachieving production balance are summarized below:a.Ring Spinning Economic Unit = 20,160 spindles, 40 RingSpinning Frames, 504 spindles each.b.Simplex Frames, 7 Roving Frames, 120 spindles each.c.Drawing Frames, (2 Passage), 4 Double Delivery DrawingFrames.d.Carding Machines, 22 cards.e.Blow Room, cleaning Line of machines with Chute FeedSystem or 3 Single Process Scutchers.It may also be pointed out that leading textile machinerymanufacturers are marketing modern state of the art machineswith operating speeds higher than those used in the foregoingcalculations. Many entrepreneurs would like to install thesemachines at their Spinning Mills, and above mentioned machin-ery combinations are determined by the financial resources andthe investment capabilities of the respective entrepreneurs as wellas presently installed spinning mills in Pakistan. Acknowledgement Assistance received from Tanzeel Minhaj, Bilal Ahmed,Muhammad Adnan and Danyal Siddiqui (Final year students ofT.I.P.) is gratefully acknowledged.  Production of card per day = 145×1.0936×60×24×0.860.119×840= 1964.54 LBSNumber of cards required = 38752.419 1964.54= 19.73 or say 20 cardsProduction per scutcher per day=  TT ×9×15×60×24×0.85= 14431.68 LBS36×0.00119×840 Number of scutchers required = 41465.09= 2.87 or say 3 scutchers.14431.68 Cotton required per day @ 7 % waste in Blow Room = 41465.09× 1.07 = 44367.65 LBS. Number of cotton bales required (375 LBS each) is equal to:37544367.65= 118.3 or say 119 bales. Nominal/Actual Yarn CountParticulars10/10.216/16.220/20.230/30.2Daily production (LBS)3398.227739.58194676645.24Winding speed (MPM)1000105011001200Operating efficiency85%85%85%85%Production perdrum per day (LBS)156.23103.2886.7863.32No. of drums required21.7574.94224.33104.95 Number of winding machines required (60 drums each) is equal to:425.9760= 7.0995 or say 7 machines. Iran has been one of the most promi-nent markets for Italy’s textile machinerymanufacturers. The sales of Italian textilemachinery to Iran during the first 9months of 2009 (most updated figures)amounted to 16 million Euros, ranking Iranfifth overall among Asian markets forItaly’s textile machinery industry. The type of machinery requested haschanged partially, with a growing interestfor finishing machinery. During the periodfrom January to September 2009, sales ofItalian machinery to Iran were distributedas follows: finishing machinery 46% oftotal, other machinery 16%, weavingmachines 13%, spinning machines 11%,accessories 11%, knitting machines 3%.The mounting share of finishing machineshighlights a continuing surge in qualitativelevels for Iranian textile production, whichhas been increasingly offering productswith greater added value. The ever-growing interest on the partof Iranian companies for Italian finishingmachinery has prompted ACIMIT(Association of Italian Textile MachineryManufacturers) and ICE (Italian TradeCommission), in partnership with theIranian Textile Association, to promote atechnology check-up for Italian textilecompanies operating in the finishingsector. To this end, during the second halfof 2009, an Italian expert in the sector vis-ited 10 local textile manufacturers to pin-point any technology gaps, simultaneouslyidentifying possible solutions by Italiantextile machinery manufacturers. The datacollected was gathered in brief informationfiles and distributed to each Iranian com-pany visited. The files portray an overview of the existing situation, indicating possi-ble technology solutions. This technology check-up representsyet another moment of synergy betweenItaly’s textile machinery manufacturers andIran’s textile and garments industry, and isan integral part of an intense promotionalcampaign being promoted by ACIMITandthe ICE in the Iranian market over manyyears now. The technology check-up thusserved as a natural follow-up to the tech-nology symposiums which took place inFebruary 2009 in Teheran and Isfahan.  Italian technology serving Iranian textile producers: A winning alliance
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