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IFSA World Food Safety Guidelines. Version 4

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IFSA World Food Safety Guidelines 2015 Version 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface. 4 Acknowledgements.. 5 Preface 4 Acknowledgement Introduction Purpose and Scope Food Safety Management
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IFSA World Food Safety Guidelines 2015 Version 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface. 4 Acknowledgements.. 5 Preface 4 Acknowledgement Introduction Purpose and Scope Food Safety Management System... 8 Food safety management systems provide a structured approach to ensuring the safety of food and demonstrating due diligence. They enable the operators to identify the points in the food chain that are likely to have the most effective impact on the safety of the final product The effectiveness of a system is reliant upon a corporate commitment to the programme. All levels within a company from top management down must be dedicated to its development, implementation and continuous review A food safety management system is comprised of two components that are of equal importance accountability and HACCP principles Critical Control Points... 4 CCP 1: Control of Food Cooking... 4 CCP 2: Control of Food Chilling... 5 CP 1: Control at Food Receiving... 6 CP 2: Control of Cold Storage Temperature... 7 CP 3 Control of Food Processing Verification Appendix I Microbiological Testing Guidelines Appendix V Foods for Temperature Control Introduction Audit Principles for Individual CCPs and SOPs Scope and Basic Requirements to Food Safety Audit... 78 4. Food Safety Audit Process Rights and Duties of Caterers and Customer Auditors Preface Food safety has long been recognized by the airline catering industry as a matter of paramount importance and this is reflected in its ongoing commitment to the development of industry guidelines. In writing this fourth edition of the World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering, our objective has been to provide a flexible food safety guideline that can accommodate our rapidly changing industry and ever increasing challenges. The most noticeable difference in this version is the inclusion of both standards and guidelines. Standard in the context of this edition is meant as a minimum requirement. The aim is to focus on the goals that are of the utmost importance in achieving food safety whilst giving companies the flexibility to meet those goals. This pragmatic approach recognizes the complexity and dynamics of the industry without compromise to the highest food safety standards. It has been recognized that to ensure the safety of food and drink when consumed onboard, a food safety management system that encompasses all stages of food production from product design through service onboard needs to be in place. As a result, this document is no longer aimed solely at flight caterers but rather at both airlines and suppliers from production to passenger service. It will provide a guideline and a reference document for all parties. The strategy in writing this revision is in line with that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for developing standards, including: The involvement of a broad spectrum of all stakeholders. The inclusion of leading industry food safety experts throughout the revision process. The development of simple, practical, risk and science based standards that are outcome based rather than prescriptive. Acknowledgement This revision has been made possible by the support and encouragement of the International Flight Services Association (IFSA) and the following individuals and their companies whose commitment, time and expertise was so generously provided in order to bring about this publication. Zuzanne Peletier Supplair Ingrid Timmermans KLM Joana Domingues Gate Gourmet Suzanne Fisher Gate Gourmet Felix Kaufmann Swiss Air Mary Pat Maher Flying Food Group Jane-Marie Hawronskyj British Airways Zev Chernilo Muller LAN Airlines Mary Ann Dowd United Airlines Barbara Boyer Air Fayre Nathalie Chesnais Servair Dean Davidson IFSA Manjit Sohal Emirates Lianey Yeap SATS Ulrike Enneking LSG Sky Chefs Abelardo Rodriquez Gourmet Foods Neil Ylanan LSG Sky Chefs Laura Alvarez Gate Gourmet Bernard Schnarwiler Swiss Air Robin Swenson Delt Airlines We gratefully acknowledge the time and effort by the IFSA / IFCA / AEA and WHO contributors of the former editions for the support and direction provided to the committee. 1. Introduction 1.1 Purpose and Scope The World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering describes effective food safety control concepts applicable to the airline industry worldwide and is accepted as the basic reference document for all parties involved. NOTE: The World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering are superseded by national food legislation whenever those local requirements are more strict. 1.2 User Guide The World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering is written in the following format: Standard The Standard specifies the requirements that a company must implement to ensure compliance with food safety controls in each respective step. The Standard generally consists of the following information: Definition Purpose Scope The definition of the Standard is stated in a framed box, an example is as follows, This is the World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering Guidelines Guidelines offer the user a method on how to achieve the standards. Guidelines are not mandatory allowing organizations the flexibility to use alternative methods based on risk assessment to achieve Standard compliance. The World Food Safety Guidelines is intended for the use of individuals with a comprehensive understanding of HACCP. This document is a generic guideline outlining the common flow processes in airline catering. The CCPs, SOPs, flow diagram, specifics in the hazard analysis and appendices outlined in this document may not apply in some instances. For this reason, individual companies and facilities must perform a facility specific flow diagram and hazard analysis. Examples of reputable HACCP training sponsors: The Guidelines generally consist of the following information: Critical limits Monitoring methods Corrective action Audit guidelines Icons indicated in Part 2.3 CCPs and 2.4 SOPs depict responsibilities as follows: : Flight Caterer : Airline 1.3 Food Safety Management System Food safety management systems provide a structured approach to ensuring the safety of food and demonstrating due diligence. They enable the operators to identify the points in the food chain that are likely to have the most effective impact on the safety of the final product. The effectiveness of a system is reliant upon a corporate commitment to the programme. All levels within a company from top management down must be dedicated to its development, implementation and continuous review. A food safety management system is comprised of two components that are of equal importance accountability and HACCP principles Accountability A food safety management system must include details of the positions that are accountable for ensuring food safety at each stage of the food chain and the boundaries of their responsibilities. The top management is ultimately responsible for food safety. The system details must be documented, communicated to the organization and updated whenever changes are made to the company structure Prerequisite Programs Prerequisite programs are procedures that address the basic operational and sanitation conditions within the facility. Verification of these programs is a requirement for most regulators. Clear support of their effectiveness is necessary to access the risks in a HACCP plan. They are implemented to: Protect products from contamination from biological, chemical and physical hazards Control bacterial growth from temperature abuse Maintain equipment Prerequisite programs include such topics as: Vendor management Training Allergen management First-In-First-Out (FIFO) Sanitation SOPs (SSOPs) Scheduled and unscheduled maintenance SOP 2. Standards and Guidelines 2.1 Accountability Top management is responsible for developing and implementing a food safety management system and to allocate resources and expertise as necessary to enable its effective application and continued maintenance Management Responsibility Top management is ultimately responsibility of food safety. They may appoint a suitably trained food safety representative to technically support achievement of the objectives Management Commitment Top management commitment can be demonstrated by, but not limited to: Communicating the food safety policies and strategies throughout the organization Food safety being included into the company objectives Resource management and budgetary planning supporting various food safety components Ensuring the timely implementation of appropriate corrective action where necessary Providing a continuous improvement culture Organizational Structure The company shall have an organizational chart demonstrating the structure of the company. Documented, clearly defined responsibilities shall exist and be communicated to key staff with responsibility for food safety, legality and quality systems. Appropriate documented arrangements shall be in place to cover for the absence of key staff. Top management shall ensure that a description of general duties or work instructions are in place and communicated to all staff with activities relating to product safety, legality and quality Management Review of Effectiveness of Food Safety Management System Members of top management shall have regular meetings to review identified key performance indicators (KPIs), understand trends and work towards continual improvement of the food safety management system. There shall be a system in place to ensure that the company is kept informed of all relevant legislative, scientific and technical developments and industry codes of practice applicable in the country of operations. 2.2 HACCP A food safety management system based on the principles of HACCP must be applied by the responsible parties to all stages of the supply chain for which they are accountable Diagram 1 Logic Sequence for application of HACCP Describe Product Identify Intended Use Construct Flow Diagram On-site confirmation of Flow Diagram Assemble HACCP Team List all potential hazards/conduct Hazard Analysis/Consider control measures Determine CCPs Establish Critical Limits for each CCP Establish Monitoring System for each CCP Establish Corrective Actions Establish Verification Procedures Establish Documentation and Record Keeping Flow Diagram 2 INSERT COMPANY NAME Simplified General Version (Example) Diagram 2 Example of Decision Tree to Identify CCPs (answer questions in sequence)* Q1. Do preventative control measure(s) exist? Yes No Yes Modify step, process or product Is control at this step necessary for safety? Yes No Not a CCP Stop** Q2. Is the step specifically designed to eliminate or reduce the likely occurrence of a hazard to an acceptable level? Yes No Q3. Could contamination with identified hazard (s) occur in excess of acceptable level (s) or could this increase to unacceptable levels? Yes No Not a CCP Stop** Q4. Will a subsequent step eliminate identified hazard (S) or reduce likely occurrence to an acceptable level?*** Yes No Critical Control Point Not a CCP Stop** (*) You can use different Decision Trees such as Codex Alimentarius; it follows same logic in defining CCP (**) Proceed to the next identified hazard in the described process (***) - Acceptable and unacceptable levels need to be defined within the overall objectives in identifying the CCPs of HACCP 1 HACCP study example and Risk Assessment (HACCP and Risk Assessment example for guidance purposes) HACCP is a management tool that provides a more structured approach to the control of identified hazards than that achievable by traditional inspection and quality control procedures. Quality Assurance and HACCP Systems considers the likelihood of a hazard occurring. Risk Assessment and Risk Management is a structured approach to help quantify these judgements. It is well recognised, at great cost, that raw materials are a major source of hazards in the final product. Risk Assessment Raw material and process risk assessment, as a part of risk management, the method of identifying potential issues and hazards in incoming goods, assessing the probable severity and likelihood to determine where to implement safety procedures or boost prerequisite programmes. Risk assessment is used to ensure that food safety control is effective, relevant, timely and responsive to threats. Food safety and security can be quite complex, even for wellestablished food manufacturers, and it is easy to apply too much safety (e.g. too many CCPs), not enough safety or the wrong safety factors, and spend too much money in the process without attaining the necessary objectives. Risk assessment helps us prioritize their risks and shows management the amount of control that should be applied to protecting against those risks in a sensible manner. Pre-Requisite Programs Prerequisite programmes are provisions of basic environmental and operating conditions focused on: - Premises - Processes - People These programmes are required for production of safe, wholesome foods. Prerequisite programmes are covering low risk safety hazards, economic or quality issues. They are underpinning the HACCP plan and enabling it to function effectively. These programmes must be in place and fully operational before the HACCP study is developed. Examples of common prerequisite programmes are: Cleaning Transport Temperature control Fabrication Pest Control Personnel Hygiene Specifications Supplier Approval Calibration Maintenance Product Control Training Waste Management Product Recall Traceability 2 Prerequisite programmes are split into two categories: standard PRPs Standard prerequisite programmes control wider, lower hazards away from the product itself and operational PRPs Operational prerequisite programmes control specific hazards that could potentially affect the product directly Standard PRPs are: Construction and layout Workflow Supplies of air, water, service Waste control Suitability of equipment Cleaning and sanitation. Operational PRPs are: Hand wash stations Glass & Brittle Plastic control Maintenance Allergen Control Foreign Body control. HACCP team should always consider hazards independently of prerequisite documents. Many control measures may be managed as part of the prerequisite programmes. It is recommended to include prerequisite programmes in the HACCP plan. 1 Diagram 3 Example of Risk assessment study based on Flow Diagram 2 Note: Please ensure that Process Steps in Risk assessment and HACCP study reflect exact Process Steps in Flow Diagram 1 Application of HACCP: The application of HACCP principles consists of the following tasks as identified in the Logic Sequence for Application of HACCP in the Codex Alimentarius Assemble HACCP Team Each responsible party should ensure that the appropriate product specific knowledge and expertise is available for the development of an effective HACCP plan. This is accomplished by assembling a multidisciplinary team. For example the team may include, but not be limited to members from airline flight planning, cabin crew, QA, production, operations, engineering, purchasing or R&D teams. Where such expertise is not available on site, expert advice should be obtained from other sources. The scope of the HACCP plan should identify which segment of the food chain is involved and the hazards to be addressed Describe Products A description of the product groups should be included as well as relevant processes such as handling, packaging, storage and distribution Identify Intended Use The intended use should be based on the expected uses of the product by the end user or consumer. In specific cases, vulnerable groups of the population, e.g. institutional feeding, may have to be considered Construct Flow Diagram The flow diagram should be constructed by the HACCP team. The flow diagram should cover all inputs and subsequent steps in the operation. When applying HACCP concepts to a given operation, consideration should be given to steps preceding and following the specified operation On-site Confirmation of Flow Diagram The HACCP team should confirm the processing operation against the flow diagram during all stages and hours of operation and amend the flow diagram where appropriate. 2 2.2.6 Implementing the Seven Principles of HACCP Airlines and flight caterers must demonstrate their HACCP system in accordance to the system elements of Codex Alimentarius CAC/RCP , Rev HACCP Principles: Principle 1: Conduct a hazard analysis: The process of collecting and evaluating information on biological, chemical (including allergens) and physical hazards and the conditions leading to their presence. Identified hazards at each flowchart step are determined for significance for food safety and addressed in the HACCP plan as controlled via CCP or a prerequisite program. Principle 2: Determine the Critical Control Points (CCPs): A critical control point is a step at which control can be applied and is essential to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level. Principle 3: Establish critical limit(s): A critical limit is a criterion, which separates acceptability from unacceptability. Principle 4: Establish a system to monitor control of the CCP: Monitoring is the act of conducting a planned sequence of observations or measurements of control parameters to assess whether a CCP is under control. Principle 5: Establish the corrective action to be taken when monitoring indicates that a particular CCP is not under control: Corrective Action is any action to be taken when the results of Monitoring at the CCP indicates a loss of control. Principle 6: Establish procedure for the verification to confirm that the HACCP system is working effectively: Verification is the application of methods, procedures, tests and other evaluations, in addition to monitoring to determine compliance with the HACCP plan. Principle 7: Establish documentation concerning all procedures and records appropriate to these principles and their application. 3 2.3 Critical Control Points CCP 1: Control of Food Cooking Standard The company must have a food temperature control system for safe cooking of high risk foods Purpose Scope To ensure a thermal kill or reduction of pathogenic bacteria and elimination of viruses and parasites High-risk raw foods Guidelines Critical Limits Monitoring Corrective Action Audit Note: Parasite Destruction Minimum required core temperatures: (hold food temp for 15 seconds.)** Poultry 74 C / 165 F Meats 1 65 C / 149 F Meats, comminuted 2 74 C / 165 F Fish, Shell fish, Crustaceans 65 C / 149 F Fish, shell fish, comminuted 2 70 C / 158 F Un-pasteurized Eggs 3 74 C / 165 F Un-pasteurized Dairy 3 72 C / 162 F Whole-muscle 4 beef, lamb, fish seared on all external surfaces to effect a cooked color change. *Follow national regulations as appropriate Check and record food core temperature of each batch upon completion of cooking or surface color change where food has been seared. If critical limit is not met, continue cooking until limit is met Randomly select some foods being cooked and verify compliance by core temperature monitoring. Randomly select some foods and verify control documentation. Parasites are destroyed in pork and fish by recommended temperatures above. As an exception, customers requesting raw fish requires the alternative process of destroying potential parasites by freezing in accordance to the following standards: -20 C/-4 F for 7 days -35 C/-31 F until solid and stored at -20 C/-4 F for 24 hours -35 C/-31 F or below until solid and stored at -35 C or below for 15 hours. (2013 FDA Food Code) 4 1 Includes: beef, pork, lamb and other meats, which are not whole-muscle or comminuted. Ref: Temps 157 F with zero time 2 Includes: ground, minced, re-formed and tumbled meats. 3 Use of these products is not recommended. See SOP: Hazardous Meal Ingredients 4 Includes: filet (tenderloin), sirloin, loin of lamb etc. CCP 2: Control of Food Chilling Standard Th
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