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IJIRAE:: Active Power analysis of a Smart Grid- Using MATLAB/SIMULINK Approach

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In this paper, a Smart Grid has been designed by MATLAB/SIMULINK approach for analysis of Active Power. Analysis of active power gives the exact idea to know the range of maximum permissible loads that can be connected to their relevant bus bars. This paper presents the change in the value of Active Power with varying load angle in context with small signal analysis. The Smart Grid, regarded as the next generation power grid, uses two-way flow of electricity and information to create a widely distributed automated energy delivery network.
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    International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2163   Volume 1 Issue 8 (September 2014 )   www.ijirae.com  _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ © 2014, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved Page - 397 Active Power analysis of a Smart Grid- Using MATLAB/SIMULINK Approach Vikash Kumar Prof. Pankaj Rai  Asstt. Professor/ EEE Deptt, Department of Electrical Engg.  BACET, Jamshedpur BIT Sindri, Dhanbad  Abstract: In this paper, a Smart Grid has been designed by MATLAB/SIMULINK approach for analysis of Active Power. Analysis of active  power gives the exact idea to know the range of maximum permissible loads that can be connected to their relevant bus bars. This paper  presents the change in the value of Active Power with varying load angle in context with small signal analysis. The Smart Grid, regarded as  the next generation power grid, uses two-way flow of electricity and information to create a widely distributed automated energy delivery  network.  Index : SIMULINK, Smart Grid, Active Power, Load Analysis I.   INTRODUCTION The smart grid is a modern electric power grid infrastructure which smoothly integrates automated control, advanced sensing and metering technologies, modern communication infrastructure and modern energy management techniques into the electricity power grid. The Smart Grid, regarded as the next generation power grid, uses two-way flows of electricity and information to create a widely distributed automated energy delivery network. [1]. Smart grid is technically classified in three categories namely Smart Infrastructure System, Smart Management System and Smart Protection System [2]. The simulation works of this paper is done under the Smart Power generation [3] technique which is a part of Smart Infrastructure System. Active power is the main  parameter to show the stability of any power system network like conventional power grid, micro grid or any virtual power plant. These distributed generators along with local loads and storage constitute micro grids. [4]. Active power control of smart grid using plug-in hybrid vehicle has already done [5].   One of the essential components in a smart grid is energy storage. A Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) can be used as a smart storage in smart grids. PHEV is a vehicle that provides its forward  propulsion from a rechargeable storage to save fuel [6], [7 ]. Different rating of storage and integrating devices are used to control the frequency can creates a very complex situation. Since micro grids are a low voltage network which is generally not the case of modern power system network [8]. In present scenario of power system network, conventional and distributed generation are combinedly used to control the power flow in order to get a highly stable network. The smart grid model includes 4 units of Thermal power plant (conventional generation) and 6 units of Wind power plant (distributed generation). Wind power plant is connected to major load side to control the power flow and this connecting point is treated as smart grid. Power generated in Thermal power plant is done by Synchronous generated and in Wind power plant Doubly Feded induction generator (DFIG) [9]. The rating of each thermal power plant is 900 MW where as wind power plant rating is 12 MW. 13.8 KV is generated by synchronous generated which is then step-up to 230 KV of voltage level and 575 V is generated by DFIG which is again step-up to 230 KV because transmission voltage is 230 KV. The overall Frequency of system is controlled by controlling the frequency of both synchronous generator and DFIG independently. The model simulates the power system network with two area system control where each area is characterized with two conventional thermal power plant each having 900 MW capacity. II.   ACTIVE POWER ANALYSIS METHOD Active power is the real power which flows in electrical network viz. transmission and distribution networks. Depending upon the load angle gradient the flow of active power takes place from source to load or from one area to another area. Fig. 1. Single line diagram of the power source connected to the load via a transmission line.    International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2163   Volume 1 Issue 8 (September 2014 )   www.ijirae.com  _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ © 2014, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved Page - 398 From Fig. 1 the active power flowing from sending end to the receiving end. For small “δ”, active  power can be controlled by changing the angle “δ” between the sending end and receiving end voltages, V S and V R   respectively. Moreover reactive power can  be controlled by controlling the difference between voltage magnitudes of V S  and V R  . For a two area system, during normal operation the real power transferred over the tie line is given by   12122112 sin    X  E  E P    Where 2112  X  X  X  X  tie    and 2112           For a small deviation in the tie-line flow 1212121212 12          s Pd dPP     2112        s PP   Fig.2 Tie Line Power Representation In an interconnected power system, different areas are connected with each other via tie-lines. When the frequencies in two areas are different, a power exchange occurs through the tie-line that connected the two areas. In case of Wind power plant DFIG is used. Doubly-fed electric machines are basically electric machines that are fed ac currents into both the stator and the rotor windings. Doubly-fed induction generators when used in wind turbines is that they allow the amplitude and frequency of their output voltages to be maintained at a constant value, no matter the speed of the wind blowing on the wind turbine rotor. Because of this, doubly-fed induction generators can be directly connected to the ac power network and remain synchronized at all times with the ac power network.    International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2163   Volume 1 Issue 8 (September 2014 )   www.ijirae.com  _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ © 2014, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved Page - 399 Simulation model of smart grid   Simulation result table: III.   RESULT AND DISCUSSION: Initial load values are taken from problem of [10] and simulation has been done. Some of the results are discussed here with their graph data are as: CASE I Load at BUS 3 Inductive Active Capacitive 130 MVAR 1050 MW 200 MVAR Load at BUS 6 Inductive Active Capacitive 140 MVAR 1850 MW 350 MVAR The graph of Active power obtained form this SIMULINK model at this load values has shown below: Sl No Load at Bus 3 Load at Bus 6 Frequencies( Hz) Inductive (MVAr)  Active (MW) Capacitive (MVAr) Inductive (MVAr)  Active (MW) Capacitive (MVAr) Minimum Maximum 1. 150 1100 200 120 1900 350 49.90 50.292 2. 180 1030 200 190 1950 350 49.72 50.105 3. 190 1200 200 210 2100 350 49.81 50.06 4. 130 1050 200 140 1850 350 49.87 50.03 5. 120 1000 200 120 1800 350 49.96 50.33 6. 100 960 200 100 1760 350 49.78 51.23 7. 80 900 200 80 1700 350 49.72 50.24 8. 70 800 200 65 1600 350 49.70 50.34 9. 60 700 200 50 1500 350 49.63 50.55 10. 50 650 200 40 1400 350 49.20 50.8    International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2163   Volume 1 Issue 8 (September 2014 )   www.ijirae.com  _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ © 2014, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved Page - 400 Fig. 3 Graph of Active power for case-I Hence this is observed from above graph that the active power values are:.B1- 620.4 MW , B2- 458.7 MW , B3- 748.3 MW, B4- 674.2 MW , B5- 673.5MW CASE II Load at BUS 3 Inductive Active Capacitive 180 MVAR 1030 MW 200 MVAR Load at BUS 6 Inductive Active Capacitive 190 MVAR 1950 MW 350 MVAR The graph of Active power obtained form this SIMULINK model at this load values has shown below: Fig.4 Graph of Active power for case-II  
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