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This essay explains the correlation between Dickens's A Tale of two cities and the Indian Mutiny in 1857.
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   D.A. Koss 1 ‘Then, began one of those extraordinary scenes with which the populace sometimes gratified their fickleness, or their better impulses towards generosity and mercy, or which they regarded as some setoff against their swollen account of cruel rage. !o man can decide now to which of these moti es suchextraordinary scenes were referable# it is probable, to a blending of all the three, with the second predominating.$ %&harles Dickens,  A Tale of Two Cities , 'ook (, &h. )*+ 1   How far do Dickens’s ambivalent views about the behaviour of politicized crowds, or the‘populace’, illuminate his thematic concerns in a  A Tale of Two Cities , and its possible srcins in hisanxieties about the ‘Indian Mutin’!  ho were they- The barbarous irates, scum of all nations, headed by such men as the hideous littleortuguese monkey, and the oneeyed /nglish con ict with the gash across his face, that ought to ha egashed his wicked head off- 0... The howling, murdering, blackflag wa ing, mad, and drunken crowd of de ils that had o ercome us by numbers and by treachery- &harles Dickens, ‘The erils of &ertain /nglish risoners$ 2 I  Although the imperial context of ‘The erils$, the &hristmas story Dickens coauthored with illkie&ollins, has been con incingly and painstakingly reconstructed by critics such as 3ddie, 'rantlinger,Tambling, !ayder and eters, and with particular reference to the ‘traumatic$ e ents of 1456 in *ndia, ( similar historicallyminded attempts at demonstrating that  A Tale of Two Cities  forms part of the ‘corpus of the 7utiny no els$ 8  ha e so far failed to generate structurally homologous critical frameworks. Thus, for instance, riti 9oshi, 5  contrasting atrick 'rantlinger$s pointblank refusal to diagnose any intent, onDickens$s part, to draw a parallel between the ‘mutinous sepoys$ and the ‘oppressed$ :rench populace ;  with<race 7oore$s eager adoption of precisely such an interpreti e schema, 6  considers as una ailing the searchfor such ‘family resemblances$, especially in iew of Dickens$s wish, as expressed, a fortiori , regarding the‘erils$, ‘not to be read topically$. *n particular, 9oshi argues 4  that, while, according to 7oore, the no el supposedly enacts a ‘fusion of the 1 &harles Dickens,  A Tale of Two Cities , ed. by Andrew =anders %3xford> 3xford ?ni ersity ress, 2@@4+, p. 268.The no el wasserialised in  All The Year Round   %ABC+ from (@ April to 2; !o ember 145.2 &harles Dickens and ilkie &ollins, ‘The erils of &ertain /nglish risoners and Their Teasure in omen, &hildren, =il er and9ewels$, in The Christmas Stories , ed. by Cuth <lancy %Eondon> 9. 7. Dent, 1; %:irst published in  Household Words , /xtra&hristmas !umber, 1456++, pp. 161F25; %pp. 284F8+ %henceforth cited as ‘The Perils’   in the text+. The story was first publishedin December 1456 as the /xtra &hristmas !umber of  Household Words  %G+ %see, e.g., Eillian !ayder, Unequal Partners:Charles Di!ens Wil!ie Collins and #itorian Authorshi$  %*thaka, !B> &ornell ?ni ersity ress, 2@@2+, p. 1@(+. ilkie &ollinswas responsible for the second chapter titled ‘The rison in the oods$ % ‘The Perils’  , pp. 2@(F81+.( illiam 3ddie, ‘Dickens and the *ndian 7utiny$, The Di!ensian , ;4>(;; %162+, (F16# cf. illiam 3ddie,  Di!ens and Carl%le: The &uestion of 'nfluene  %Eondon> &entenary ress, 162+, pp. 1F(# atrick 'rantlinger,  Rule of Dar!ness: (ritishliterature and im$erialism )*+,-).)/  %*thaka, !B> &ornell ?ni ersity ress, 144+, pp. 2@;F@4# 9eremy Tambling,  Di!ens 0iolene and the modern state: dreams of the saffold   %Eondon> 7acmillan, 15+, pp. 14;F1# Eillian !ayder, ‘&lass&onsciousness and the *ndian 7utiny in Dickens$s The Perils of Certain 1n2lish Prisoners $, Studies in 1n2lish 3iterature )4,,-).,, , (2>8 %12+, ;4F6@5# also, !ayder, Unequal Partners  %ch. 8+# Eaura eters, H‘Doubledyed Traitors and *nfernal )illainsI>  'llustrated 3ondon 5ews Household Words , &harles Dickens and the *ndian Cebellion$, in  5e2otiatin2 'ndia in the 5ineteenth-Centur% 6edia , ed. by Da id :inkelstein and Douglas 7. eers %Eondon> 7acmillan, 2@@@+, pp. 11@F1(8# and Eaura eters, 7r$han te8ts: #itorian or$hans ulture and em$ire  %7anchester> 7anchester ?ni ersity ress, 2@@@+, pp. ;(F65.8 <autam &hakra arty, The 'ndian 6utin% and the (ritish 'ma2ination  %&ambridge> &ambridge ?ni ersity ress, 2@@5+, passim 9 5 riti 9oshi, ‘7utiny /choes> *ndia, 'ritons, and &harles Dickens$s  A Tale of Two Cities $,  5ineteenth-Centur% 3iterature , ;2>1%2@@6+, 84F46.; 'rantlinger,  Rule of Dar!ness , p. 2@4.6 <race 7oore,  Di!ens and 1m$ire: Disourses of Class Rae and Colonialism in the Wor!s of Charles Di!ens  %'urlington,)T> Ashgate, 2@@8+, chs.;6.4 9oshi, pp. 5(F58, 4@, 45. The extracts from the letters to Genry 7orley and Angela 'urdett&outts %14 3ctober 1456 and 25 !o ember 1456,respecti ely+, on the basis of which 9oshi approaches both the no el and the &hristmas story in terms of Dickens$s authorialintent, occur ibid 9 68, 4@. *n the following * include the corresponding paragraphs from the letters and italiie  the passagescrucial to 9oshi$s argument> ‘3r can you suggest from your remembrance any more probable set of circumstances in which a few /nglish peoplegentlemen,ladies and childrenand a few /nglish soldiers, would find themsel es alone in a strange wild place and liable to hostile attack-  ' wish to a0oid 'ndia itself # but * want to shadow out, in what * do the bra ery of our ladies in *ndia$ %Eetter to 7orley, Jtd in3ddie, ‘Dickens and the *ndian 7utiny$, p. ;+# ‘*t is all one story this time, of which * ha e written the greater part %7r &ollinshas written one chapter+, and which * ha e planned with great care in the hope of commemorating, without an% 0ul2ar ath$enn% onne8ion or a$$liation , some of the best Jualities of the /nglish character that ha e been shown in *ndia. * hope it   D.A. Koss 2 :rench Ce olution with 'ritish workingclass unrest and the sepoy rebellion$, and, conseJuently, posits achain of eJui alences between anient r;2ime  corruption, the ‘unchecked nepotism and brutality$ of %premutiny+ &ompany rule, and   the excess of ‘retributi e ustice$    isited upon the *ndian masses during theJuelling of the rebellion ‘indicating thereby Dickens$s sympathy with *ndians$, at the same time, 7oorecontends rather incoherently that, by the end of the no el, 7iss ross has become ‘a representati e of Anglo*ndian womanhood in its entirety$ %apparently, a masculiniLed ersion of 7arion 7aryon of ‘The erils$,amalgamating, in her character, 0‘stainedglass madonna$like 1@  ‘fragility 11 $ %M+ with the resoluteness of the‘female analogue to the imperial power$ now readily capable of ‘resisting any wouldbe attacker$+, 12  whichwould, arguably, suggest Dickens$s taking sides with the Anglo*ndians. 1(   II  Ga ing thus indicated the difficulty in ol ed in applying the notion that a specific historical conuncturemay somehow be ‘conformally transformed$ into the no el$s structure, 18  * wish to return to 9oshi$s tentati ereconstruction of Dickens$s ‘expressed$ intention 15  with regard to the composition of ‘The erils$. hileostensibly elaborating on 3ddie$s conecture that ‘behind the fe ered intensity of Dickens$s e ocations of :rench atrocities 0in  A Tale  must lie$ not only a deeprooted a ersion to mobrule, 1;  but also ‘the no elist$sfeelings about the terrible e ents of 1456$, 16  and proposing an alternati e construction whereby the 7utiny isseen as the precipitating factor %or ‘animating$ force+ accounting for the no el$s o erall conception, 14  9oshiessentially depicts Dickens as being successfully interpellated into what Eaura eters has called ‘the dualrole of imperial author and imperial editor 0for  HW   and  AYR $. 1  *ndeed, both critics, working with partially is ery good and * think it will make a noise$ %Eetter to Angela 'urdett&outts, Jtd in ibid., p. 6+. :or this ‘ustificatory clause$ conoined with the ‘reign of the terror$ following the re olt, see &hristopher Gerbert, War of 5o Pit%: The 'ndian 6utin% and #itorian Trauma  %rinceton, !9> rinceton ?ni ersity ress, 2@@6+, ch.8. Gerbert %ibid. ch.5+ approaches Dickens$s no el from a perspecti e similar to that of 7oore. Gowe er, many of the formulationsoffered in this publication, which, to all intents and purposes, seeks to establish the ‘possibility of a morally defensibleimperialism$, are simply shocking %e.g. the charge of ‘defamation of one$s scholarly predecessors$ le elled against postcolonialcritics, %ibid. p.1(;++.1@ The phrase occurs in 3ddie,  Di!ens and Carl%le: The &uestion of 'nfluene , p. 2.11 *n particular, she argues> ‘Through allowing 7iss ross to assert herself, but still sur i e, Dickens complicates and o erturns theconceptions of the fragility of 'ritish womanhood that characteriLed reports of the massacre at the 'ibighar$ %7oore, p. 158+.12 *bid., pp. 12(@, 185, 15(58. *n the description gi en by Dickens of 7iss ross in the aftermath of the ‘grand wrestling match$ %Garold 'loom, ‘*ntroduction$,in Charles Di!ens’s A Tale of Two Cities9 (loom’s 6odern Critial 'nter$retations , ed. by Garold 'loom %!ew Bork> &helseaGouse, 2@@6+, pp. 26F86 %p. 11++, a description, ‘bearing a remarkable resemblance to the dishe elled state of a rape sur i or$,7oore sees e idence of Dickens$s engaging in a ‘re ision$ of the narrati es of ‘systematic rape and mutilation$ widelydisseminated at the time of the rebellion among the 'ritish public %7oore, p. 158# cf., also. 9enny =harpe, ‘The ?nspeakableEimits of Cape> &olonial )iolence and &ounter*nsurgency$, in Colonial Disourse and Post-Colonial Theor% , ed. by atrick illiams and Eaura &hrisman %Garlow> earson /ducation, 18 %:irst published in <enders , 1@>5, =pring 11, pp.25F5;++, pp.221F8(# the passage 7oore comments on occurs in  A Tale of Two Cities , p.(58+. *n support of her thesis, 7oore also draws a parallel between the ‘'egum Gussani Khanum$ %who ‘incit0ed the atrocities committed against the /nglish women in &awnporethrough casting aspersions on the sepoys$ masculinity$ %7oore, p. 15(++ and Defarge, without howe er pro iding any textuale idence. * ha e been unable to locate this particular detail regarding the conduct of !ana sahib$s ser ant %the ‘'egum$+ at thetime of the massacre %cf. Cudrangshu 7ukheree, ‘H=atan Eet Eoose ?pon /arthI> The Kanpur 7assacres in *ndia in the Ce oltof 1456$,  Past = Present  , 124>1 %1@+, 2F11; %p. 118+ and <eorge Tre elyan, Cawn$ore  %Eondon> 7acmillan, 148 014;5+, p.264, for ‘'egum$s$ participation in this episode+. *t is Juite likely that 7oore has in mind =harpe$s recounting of the %fictional+exploits of the ‘Cani of 9hansi$ %=harpe, pp. 2(1(2+. *n this respect, * consider 7oore$s argument as purely speculati e.*tshould be added that the episode of the deadly struggle between the two women is read by Garold 'loom as expressing 7issross$s ‘repressed lesbian passion$ for Defarge %'loom, p. 11+.1( !ayder also remarks that 7oore is forced into difficult positions by her desire both to champion the ‘radical$ Dickens and to‘challenge the idea of a Hsustained racismI$ e idenced in his texts %Eillian !ayder, ‘'ook Ce iew> Dickens and /mpire>Discourses 3f &lass, Cace And &olonialism in the orks of &harles Dickens, by <race 7oore$, #itorian Studies , 84>2 %2@@;+,((1F((( %p. ((2++# for Dickens$s racism, see infra .18 &f. Daniel =tout, ‘!othing ersonal> The Decapitation of &haracter in  A Tale of Two Cities $,  5o0el  , 81>1 %2@@6+, 2F52 %pp. (@F (1+, for a distinction between ‘conceptually$ and ‘referentially historicisict$ no els.15 =ee note 4,  su$ra .1; &f., e.g., atrick 'rantlinger, ‘Did Dickens Ga e a hilosophy of Gistory- The &ase of  (arna>% Rud2e $,  Di!ens Studies Annual  , (@ %2@@1+, 5F68# !icholas )isser, ‘Coaring 'easts and Caging :loods> The Cepresentation of olitical &rowds in the !ineteenth&entury 'ritish !o el$, The 6odern 3an2ua2e Re0iew , 4>2 %18+, 24F(16 %pp. (@2F(@4+.16 3ddie, ‘Dickens and the *ndian 7utiny$, p. 15.14 9oshi, pp. 58, 4@.1 eters, ‘Doubledyed Traitors$, p. 125.   D.A. Koss ( o erlapping subsets of Dickens$s texts, and with 9oshi focusing mainly on the Tale , 2@  detect an o erarchingconcern on the no elist$s part which far exceeds the perceptions of threat and resulting anxieties e inced incontemporary public responses to the e ents in *ndia> 21  according to eters and 9oshi, the ambitious proectto which Dickens de oted his attention around this time was one of consolidation of ‘'ritish nationalidentity$ and imperial hegemony through the mythic reassertion of ‘heroic and chi alrous$ masculinity andthrough the ‘identification of the enemy$ in an unambiguous form, i.e. that of the racial other. 22  Although this last claim is tenable and indeed eters not only con incingly reconstructs the intertextualdimension of Dickens$s ‘literary and editorial practice$ with reference to contemporary ‘media co erage$ of the e ents, and in particular the publication of ‘sur i or$ narrati es in the  'llustrated 3ondon 5ews , roughlycoinciding with the period of the short story$s gestation, but associates this area of ‘errant$ excess 2(  inDickens$s response with a widely shared concern that the whole 'ritish empire might soon be engulfed inrebellion 28  %which probably accounts for the description of the ‘gang of pirates$ in ‘The erils$ ascomprising the ‘scum of all nations$ 25 +, ne ertheless, following !ayder, * want to add to this account what *consider to a be significant Jualification, at least for the purposes of this paper. Thus, !ayder, introducing aslight displacement in the schema discussed so far, argues that if ‘the representation of class re olution in  ATale of Two Cities is informed by the sepoy re olt$, it is also true that Dickens$s ‘fear of class conflict$informs the narrati iLation of the mutiny in the &hristmas story, where he foregrounds the racial tensionsgenerated by the e ents in *ndia so as ‘to transform socially sub ersi e feelings of class inury and ressentiment   into a socially Juiescent racism$. 2;  :ollowing 'rantlinger , 26  !ayder thus places the emphasis onthe story$s conformity to those ideological elements of the ‘imperial romance$ which, by setting forth ‘asocially regressi e solution$ to the %perennial+ ‘condition of /nglandJuestion$, 24  work ‘to ustify botharistocratic and imperial rule$. *ndeed, ha ing passed through the alembic of the colonial encounter, the‘marginaliLed$ 2  hero$s disaffection is ‘sublimated$ (@  into a relation of ‘ assalage to his lady$ %7arion7aryon+, (1 and, in this manner, as Tambling notes, the ‘heterogeneous$ actant is called upon in the narrati e 2@ 9oshi, pp. 646.21 see, e.g., eters, 7r$han Te8ts , pp. ;(F;8# eters, ‘Doubledyed Traitors$, p. 1(@.22 eters, ‘Doubledyed Traitors$, esp. pp. 114, 1(@# and 9oshi, esp. pp. 58, 6(, 65# 2( :or the text of the infamous letter of 8 3ctober 1456 to Angela 'urdett &outts, which contains Dickens$s ‘genocidal$ commentson the ‘mutiny$, see, e.g., !ayder, ‘&lass &onsciousness and the *ndian 7utiny$, p. ;8# cf. ‘The Perils’  , 25( %the killing of &hristian <eorge King+.28 eters, ‘Doubledyed Traitors$, pp. 125F1(1# =he shows, for instance,how certain elements in the story ‘resonate withdescriptions and themes$ occurring in the  '35   eyewitness accounts %e.g., the treachery of ‘trusted ser ants$, the ‘animaliLation$ of the mutineers, the ‘endurance$ of 'ritish women and the ‘ alour$ and determination of 'ritish men, etc.+. hile etersacknowledges her indebtedness to !ayder$s work %ibid. p. 111# cf. eters, 7r$han Te8ts , pp. 61 et seJ.+, her stated aim howe er isto trace ‘the intersection of political, ournalistic and literary discourses emerging from the crisis in *ndia$ %eters, ‘DoubledyedTraitors$, p. 1(2+, and also to in estigate Dickens$s role as propagandist for the cause of empire %ibid. p.121+. 25 ‘The Perils’  , 16;, 286# cf. eters, ‘Doubledyed Traitors$, pp. 1(@F(1# 'rantlinger,  Rule of Dar!ness , p. 2@6.2; !ayder, Unequal Partners , pp. 1@(, 116# !ayder, ‘&lass &onsciousness and the *ndian 7utiny$, p. ;2. *t should be added that !ayder ad ances a series of cogent arguments for differentiating ilkie &ollins$s attitudes to raceNclassNgender from those of Dickens .:or 3ddie$s identification of the ‘historical prototypes$ of the story, ibid. ;; %with &ommissioner ordage based on‘&lemency &anning$, and ‘&hristian King <eorge$ on !ana =ahib+.26 !ayder, Unequal Partners , p. 125 %n.82+# Eillian !ayder, ‘The &annibal, the !urse, and the &ook in Dickens$s The ?roen Dee$ $, #itorian 3iterature and Culture , 1 %11+, 1F28 %p. 6@5+ %n.(@+.24 :or this %&arlylean+ notion, see, e.g., Denis <. aL,  Di!ens and (arna>% Rud2e9 Anti-Catholiism and Chartism  %7onmouth>The 7erlin ress, 2@@;+, passim.2 &f. eters, 7r$han Te8ts , p. 61# also> ‘0<ill was a foundling child, picked up somewhere or another$, and whose ‘father %-+ 0...used to gi e 0him so little of his ictuals and so much of his staff, that 0<ill ran away from him$, etc. % ‘The Perils’  , pp.16865+.(@ :or the structure of the masochistic phantasy that subtends this motif of ‘de otion and selfsacrifice$, reprised in &arton$sexecution in  A Tale of Two Cities , * consider particularly rele ant the following remarks by 7ichel de &erteau on ‘torture$ and the‘institution of filth$> ‘The ictim must be the 0oie  of the filth, e erywhere denied, that e erywhere supports the re$resentation  of the regime$s HomnipotenceI# in other words, the Hglorious imageI of themsel es the regime pro ides for its adherents through itsrecognition of them$ %7ichel de &erteau,  Heterolo2ies: Disourse on the 7ther   %7anchester> 7anchester ?ni ersity ress,14;+, p. 81+.(1 This passage is based on !ayder, Unequal Partners , p. 125# !ayder, ‘&lass &onsciousness and the *ndian 7utiny$, pp. ;5O2,;6O1, 6@1O1. The episode in the story where ri ate Da is ‘pledges himself to his lady$, ha ing refused a ‘purse of money$ offered in paymentfor ser ices rendered to his masters, occurs in ‘The Perils’   %p. 258+# compare also the promise by Da is to 7arion and that gi en by =idney to Eucie > H* shall ha e died in your defence before it comes to 0your being takenI % ‘The Perils’  , p.1;+# ‘:or you, and   D.A. Koss 8 to ‘defend the homogeneous aspects of society$, (2  and thereby re members ((  himself in the image of ‘theoppressor of the rest of the 0racially impure$. (8  Gowe er, although, this narrati e matrix, with its o erconscious emphasis on ‘hero$ glorification through%celibate+ selfabnegation and the ‘performance of heroic deeds for the glorification of others$, along with the proection of the narrated e ents into an ‘absolute epic past,$ appears to pro ide important clues to the themeof &arton$s ‘selfsacrifice and de otion$ treated in  A Tale of Two Cities , thus arguably suggesting theconformity of both works to the ‘chronotype$ of the ‘chi alric romance$ and pointing to the legitimatingwork performed by both in ser ice to the /mpire, (5  such an approach does not yet account for what manycritics recogniLed as the ‘feminiLation$ of the re olutionary mob in the no el, (;  or rather the eJuation of social uphea al with a disarticulation, or in ersion, of sexual hierarchies, attributed to ‘cannibal$ (6  ‘de iantfemininity$, or e en to ‘degenerate$, ‘polymorphously per erse$ crossgendering. (4  hile manycommentators ha e noted before the extensi e a ailability of the ‘iconography of cannibalism$ employed by)ictorian writers as a metaphor for class conflict, (  it is Juite likely that !ayder$s ‘exca ation$ work onDickens$s re isions to &ollins$s srcinal manuscript for the 1456 stage production of The ?roen Dee$ 8@  mayha e supplied, in the ‘phalllicmother$ figure of !urse /sther %‘a barbarous Gighlander, a former wet nurseand a resentful ser ant$+, 81  the ‘missing link$ in what is essentially a proliferating population of ‘specular sel es$ refracted through the twodimensional field of Dickens$s colonial ‘*maginary$. 82  &oncei ed inresponse to Dr. Cae$s report about the fate of the :ranklin expedition, a report 8(  which contained a series of allegations which raised the spectre of ‘mutiny and cannibalism$ among the explorers and which, bythreatening in this manner to efface ‘the boundary between sa agery and ci iliLation$ and by in oking‘images of class warfare$, appeared to contro ert both the ideological ustification of the ‘ci iliLing mission$ for any dear to you, * would do anything 0... * would embrace any sacrifice for you and for those dear to you$ %  A Tale of TwoCities , p.186+.(2 Cegarding &arton$s ‘exteriorityI to the locus of the ‘)ictorian hearth$ %cf. his characteriLation as ‘selfflung away, wasted,drunken, poor creature of misuse$ %  A Tale of Two Cities , p.188+, &atherine aters obser es that ‘0ironically, the triumph of therepresentati e middleclass family is only secured in the no el through an instance of its own failure$ %&atherine aters, ‘A Taleof Two &ities$, in Charles Di!ens’s A Tale of Two Cities9 (loom’s 6odern Critial 'nter$retations , ed. by Garold 'loom %!ewBork> &helsea Gouse, 2@@6+, pp. 1@1F24 %pp. 12825++.(( The idiom used here is Eacanian.(8 Tambling, pp. 146, 14 %cf. ibid. p. 158 and note (@  su$ra +.(5 !ancy E. axton, ‘7obiliLing &hi alry> Cape in 'ritish !o els about the *ndian ?prising of 1456$, #itorian Studies , (;>1%12+, 5F(@ %pp. ;, +# see, also, n.(1  su$ra and accompanying text. HThe erilsI is set in &entral America in 1688 % ‘The Perils’  , p.16(+# cf. eters$s comment on the colonists$ ‘march straight toGea en$ % ‘The Perils’  , p.255+, which strikingly illustrates the ‘symbolic organiLation of the spacetime$ of the story> ‘the idyllic paradise had been purged of its demon, enabling the coloniLers to re el in the <arden of /den and the sailors to claim a spiritualreward$ %eters, 7r$han Te8ts , p. 1(1# also, )anden 'ossche on the ‘prophetic closure$ effected in  A Tale   of Two Cities > ‘0&artonis HplottingI the imagined end of the Terror and 0the return of the family to a aris reborn as the hea enly city$ %‘!ew9erusalem$+. %&hris C. )anden 'ossche, ‘rophetic &losure and Disclosing !arrati e> The ?renh Re0olution  and  A Tale of TwoCities $,  Di!ens Studies Annual  , 12 %14(+, 2@F21 %p. 21;+#  A Tale of Two Cities , p.(;@+(; Eisa Cobson, ‘The HAngelsI in Dickens$s Gouse> Cepresentation of omen in  A Tale of Two Cities $, in Charles Di!ens’s A Taleof Two Cities9 (loom’s 6odern Critial 'nter$retations , ed. by Garold 'loom %!ew Bork> &helsea Gouse, 2@@6+, pp. 26F86 %p.8(+# aters, p. 11@.(6 Gowe er, it should be noted that, in a passage that occurs shortly before the disco ery of the ‘=ambo$s$ treachery, ri ate Da isthinks of &hristian <eorge King as a ‘cannibal$ % ‘The Perils’  , p.11+# moreo er, by the autumn of 1456, allegations of cannibalism in *ndia had already appeared in the press %‘$&hildren ha e been compelled to eat the Jui ering flesh of their murdered parents $ % The Times  16 =eptember 1456# Jtd in eters, ‘Doubledyed Traitors$, p. 12(+.(4 aters, p. 11(# Tambling, p. 188.( :or instance, Eee =terrenburg, ‘sychoanalysis and the *conography of Ce olution$, #itorian Studies , 1>2 %165+, 281F2;8#9ames /. 7arlow, ‘/nglish &annibalism> Dickens after 145$, Studies in 1n2lish 3iterature )4,,-).,, , 2(>8 %14(+, ;86F;;;#cf. !ayder, ‘&lass &onsciousness and the *ndian 7utiny$, pp. 1 n.(.8@ The play was ‘ointly composed by Dickens and ilkie &ollins in 145;$, and was first staged in 9anuary 1456. %!ayder, ‘The&annibal, the !urse, and the &ook in Dickens$s The ?roen Dee$ $, p. (# !ayder, Unequal Partners , pp. ;8, 8# it is impossiblehere to go into the details of !ayder$s argument regarding Dickens$s re isions# let it suffice to say that her account aims to stressDickens$s ‘conser atism$. %ibid. 4;F8+.+81 !ayder, Unequal Partners , p. 65.82 :or this structure of ambi alence associated with ‘the mirror stage$, see, e.g., Gomi 'habha, The 3oation of Culture  %Eondon>Coutledge, 18+, ch.(.8( ublished in The Times  on 2( 3ctober 1458 %!ayder, ‘The &annibal, the !urse, and the &ook in Dickens$s The ?roen Dee$ $, p.1+.
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