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International Chemistry Olympiad Problems Volume 03 (2009-2013)

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THE COMPETITION PROBLEMS FROM THE INTERNATIONAL CHEMISTRY OLYMPIADS (Volume 3) 41st – 45th IChO (2009 – 2013)
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    󰁔󰁈󰁅 󰁃󰁏󰁍󰁐󰁅󰁔󰁉󰁔󰁉󰁏󰁎 󰁐󰁒󰁏󰁂󰁌󰁅󰁍󰁓 󰁆󰁒󰁏󰁍 󰁔󰁈󰁅 󰁉󰁎󰁔󰁅󰁒󰁎󰁁󰁔󰁉󰁏󰁎󰁁󰁌 󰁃󰁈󰁅󰁍󰁉󰁓󰁔󰁒󰁙 󰁏󰁌󰁙󰁍󰁐󰁉󰁁󰁄󰁓 󰁖󰁯󰁬󰁵󰁭󰁥 3 41 󰁳󰁴  󲀓 45 󰁴󰁨  󰁉󰁃󰁨󰁏 2009 󲀓 2013 󰁅󰁤󰁩󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁢󰁹 󰁁󰁮󰁴󰁯󰁮 󰁓󰁩󰁲󰁯󰁴󰁡 IUVENTA – Slovak Youth Institute, Bratislava, 2014    THE COMPETITION PROBLEMS FROM THE INTERNATIONAL CHEMISTRY OLYMPIADS, Volume 3 41 st  – 45 th  IChO (2009 – 2013) Editor: Anton Sirota ISBN 978-80-8072-154-1 Copyright © 2014 by IUVENTA – ICHO International Information Centre, Bratislava, Slovakia You are free to copy, distribute, transmit or adapt this publication or its parts for unlimited teaching purposes, you are obliged, however, to attribute your copies, transmissions or adaptations with a reference to The Competition Problems from the International Chemistry Olympiads, Volume 3 as it is commonly required in the chemical literature. The problems copied cannot be published and distributed for commercial proposes. The above conditions can only be waived if you get permission from the copyright holder. Issued by IUVENTA – Slovak Youth Institute in 2014 with the financial support of the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic Number of copies: 250 Not for sale. International Chemistry Olympiad International Information Centre IUVENTA - Slovak Youth Institute Búdková 2 SK 811 04 Bratislava 1, Slovakia e-mail: anton.sirota@stuba.sk web: www.icho.sk    Contents Contents Contents Contents Preface 41 st IChO Theoretical problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141   Practical problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1174 42 nd  IChO Theoretical problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1191   Practical problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1228 43 rd  IChO Theoretical problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1245   Practical problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1282 44 th  IChO Theoretical problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1297   Practical problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1341 45 th   IChO Theoretical problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1355   Practical problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1402 Quantities and their units used in this publication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1424       󰁐󰁲󰁥󰁦󰁡󰁣󰁥 This publication contains 39 theoretical and 14 practical competition problems from the 41 st  – 45 th  International Chemistry Olympiads (IChO) organized in the years 2009 – 2013. It has been published by the IChO   International Information Centre in Bratislava (Slovakia) as a continuation of the preceding Volumes 1 and 2 published on the occasion of the 40 th  anniversary of the IChO with the titles: ã   The competition problems from the International Chemistry Olympiads, Volume 1, 1 st  – 20 th  IChO, 1968 – 1988 (IUVENTA, Bratislava, 2008). ã   The competition problems from the International Chemistry Olympiads, Volume 2, 21 st  – 40 th  IChO, 1989 – 2008 (IUVENTA, Bratislava, 2009). Not less than 318 theoretical and 110 practical problems were set in the IChO during the forty-five years of its existence. In the elaboration of this collection the editor had to face certain difficulties because the aim was not only to make use of past recordings but also to give them such a form that they may be used in practice and further chemical education. Consequently, it was necessary to make some corrections in order to unify the form of the problems (numbering the tasks of the particular problems, solution inserted immediately after the text of the problem, solutions without grading points and special graphs used for grading of practical problems). Nevertheless, the mentioned corrections and changes do not concern the contents and language of the competition problems. The practical problems set in the IChO competitions, contain as a rule some instructions, list of apparatuses available, chemicals on each desk and those available in the laboratory, and the risk and safety phrases with regard to the chemicals used. All of these items are important for the competitors during the competition but less important for those who are going to read the competition tasks of this collection and thus, they are omitted. Some parts of the solutions of practical problems are also left out since they require the experimental data which could be obtained by experiments during the practical part of the IChO competition. In this publication SI quantities and units are preferred. Only some exceptions have been made when, in an effort to preserve the srcinal text, the quantities and units have been used that are not SI. Although the numbers of significant figures in the results of some solutions do not obey the criteria generally accepted, they were left without change.
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