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EQ 85.4 (2013), 338-351 Jesus's Thirst at the Cross: Irony and Intertextuality in John 19:28 B r i a n T a b b Brian Tabb serves as Assistant Professor of Biblical Studies and Assistant Dean at Bethlehem College and Seminary, Minneapolis. Keywords: fulfillment; intertextuality; irony; John 19:28; Psalm 69:21; thirst. C. K. Barrett contends that John uses the Old Testament 'in a novel manner, col- lecting its sense rather than quoting'.' Jesus's saying 'I thirst' represe
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  EQ 85.4 (2013), 338-351 Jesus s Thirst at the Cross: Irony andIntertextuality in John 19:28  rian Tabb Brian Tabb serves  s  Assistant Professor  of  Biblical Studies  nd  Assistant Dean  t Bethlehem College  nd  Seminary Minneapolis. Keywords: fulfillment; intertextuality; irony; John  19:28;  Psalm  69:2 ;  thirst. C.  K.  Barrett contends that John uses the Old Testament 'in a novel manner, col-lecting its sense rather than quoting'.' Jesus's saying 'I thirst' represents a par-ticularly challenging example of the Fourth Gospel's 'novel' use of Scripture. Theinterpretive crux of John 19:28 is well known: Jesus's penultimate word ftom the cross,  ÔLipû) ('I thirst'), is introduced as 'Scripture' (f) YQa(j)r)) and yet does notneatly match any antecedent  text ^  As  Brawley puts it, interpreters are faced with'the paradox of an absent complement'.^ Because of this problem of source, therecent major studies by Menken and Schuchard of John's use of the Old Testa-ment do not discuss John  19:28.''  This omission is unfortunate, because the ref-erence to the fulfillment or accomplishment of Scripture' in John 19:28 comesat the narrative climax of the Gospel.This article seeks to address three primary questions about John 19:28. First,what 'Scripture' is fulfilled? Second, why does John employ the unique fulfill-ment formula iva  TEXEICDBTI  ('in order that... would be accomplished')? Third,what is the nature of Jesus's 'thirst'? While others have identified Psalm 69:21[68:22 LXX] as John's likely Old Testament source,^ this study aims to make afresh contribution to scholarship on John 19:28 in several  ways.  Gareful thoughtis given to the terminology and criteria used in assessing John's use of Scrip- ture. Additionally, I will consider the context of Psalm 69, of which John waswell-aware (cf. 2:17; 15:25), as well as the wider narrative context of the Fourth C. K. Barrett, 'The Old Testament in the Fourth Gospel',/TS  48  (1947), 155-69 (citing 156). According to C. Brov^m, 'In the NT it  [YPOI()T))  is used exclusively of Holy Scripture'('Scripture, Writing', in  NIDNTT 3:490).R. L. Brawley, 'An Absent Complement and Intertextuality in lohn 19:28-29',/Bi 112  1993),  427-43 citing443). M. J. J. Menken,  Old Testament Quotations in the Fourth  Gospel:  Studies in TextualForm  (Kampen, the Netherlands:  Kok  Pharos, 1996);  B. G.  Schuchard,  Scripture  withinScripture The Interrelationship of Form and Function in the Explicit Old TestamentCitations in the  ospel  of John  (SBLDS  133;  Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1992).In this article, references to the LXX or Septuagint are to A. Rahlfs and R. Hanhart (eds.),  Septuaginta  (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2006, rev. ed.).In this regard, I intend to build upon my earlier article, 'lohannine Fulfillment:Continuity and Escalation', BBß  21  (2011): 495-505.  Jesus s Thirst  at  the Cross  EQ ã 339Gospel, with particular attention to the way John employs 'thirst' language else-where. Finally, I hope to show that the reference to Jesus's thirst at the cross isfundamentally  ironic when interpreted in light of the context of Psalm 68 [69]and John's portrait of Jesus as the source of living water. I. What 'Scripture' is fulfilled in John 19:28? 1.  Syntax of John  19:28 Meta Toíixo elôcbç  ó  Ir|ooûç  öti  iiôr) jiávxa TEiéXeoTai,  'iva  TeX.8LCü6f|  f)  YQa(j)f),  éy v  ôiopû). The narrative of the Fourth Gospel takes a turn at 19:16-18, when Pilate or-ders Jesus to be crucified. The evangelist then records the debate between tbecbief priests and Pilate over the inscription at the cross (w. 19-22), the divisionof  Jesus s  garments by the soldiers (w. 23-24), the exchange between Jesus andbis mother and the beloved disciple (w. 25-27), and Jesus's last words and hisdeath (w. 28-30).^ The Greek syntax of verse 28 is challenging and may be liter-ally translated, 'After  tbis,  Jesus, knowing that all things had been accomplished,in order that the Scripture would be accomplished, said,^ I thirst' .^Scholars debate whether the 'iva purpose clause' is syntactically dependenton the  preceding verb xsxékearai  or on the/o/towmg  verb  XeyEi. The primary ar-guments for taking  iva  with what precedes are as follows. First, the conjunction'iva normally introduces a final clause related to a  preceding verb  in John (and inthe  New  Testament generally). Second, w. 28-30 are closely linked to the previ-ous scene in w. 23-27 by way of tbe temporal prepositional pbrase  \isxa  xotiio.Third, if the iva clause indicates the purpose of all things having been accom-plished, then the reference may be to general scriptural fulfillment, which thusalleviates the problem of source. 7 For the relationship between John 19:28-30 and the wine incidents in the Synopticaccount of the crucifixion, see R. E. Brown,  The  Gospel according to John [2  vols.,  AB 29-29A; Garden Gity: Douhleday, 1966-70), 2:927.8 The verh  XéyEL  is rendered 'said' as it is a historical present in a stereotyped idiom.Cf. D.  B.  Wallace,  Greek  Grammar  Beyond  the Basics: An  Exegetical  Syntax of the NewTestament  (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996), 526-32.9 Unless otherwise noted, all scriptural translations in this paper are my own.10 iva  TEXEICOOÍÍ  i} yQdt^ í]  is omitted in the srcinal version of P66, but the strength ofother witnesses and the challenging syntax suggest that this clause is likely srcinal.11 For this interpretation, see G. Bampfylde, 'lohn xix 28: A Case for a DifferentTranslation',  NovTU  (1969),  247-61,  esp.  253;  R.  Bergmeier, 'TETELESTAI (Joh 19:30)', ZNW79  (1988), 282-90, esp. 285-86; D. E. Garland, 'The Fulfillment Quotations inJohn's Account of the Crucifixion', in  Perspectives  on John  (ed. R. B. Sloan and M. G.Parsons; Lewiston, NY: Mellen, 1993), 229-50, esp. 239-42. L. Morris claims that adecision between taking the purpose clause with what precedes or follows is 'notcertain' and posits that John may have in mind a reference to both;  The Gospel according  to John  (NICNT; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995, rev. ed.),  719.  For a similarview, see  R.  E. Brovm,  The  Death oftheMessiah  [2  vols.; New York: Douhleday, 1994), 2:1072-73.   4Q  ã EQ  Brian Tabb However,  the  majority  of  commentators, grammarians,  and  English transla-tions righdy understand  the  'iva clause  to be  dependent  on  ^éyei  for  the follow-ing reasons.'^ First, Xeyei  is the  main verb  of  the sentence,  and  it  is  natural  to see  the iva  clause  as  syntactically dependent  on the  main verb  as is the  adver-bial participle elôœç. Second,  it  is  awkward  to  take  ïva  rsktuüQf]  as  dependenton  the  cognate verb xexe^LEoTat.'^ Third, John's references  to  r\  yQa<^i ]  in  fulfill-ment formulas elsewhere usually call  to  mind  a  specific  Scriptural text ratherthan  a  general  Scriptural idea.''' Finally, several other times  in  John's Gospel,  a 'iva clause precedes  the  main verb  for the  purpose  of  emphasis  (cf.  1:31;  14:31; 19:31).'^ Most importantly,  the  final clause clearly precedes  the  main verb justthree verses later in John  19:31:  'so  that  ( iva)  the bodies would  not  remain on  the cross on the Sabbath  ...  the Jews asked Pilate that their legs might be broken andthat they might be taken away'.' I  conclude that the 'iva clause in  9:28  is syntac-tically dependent  on the  following verb  Xéyei  and is  front-loaded  to  accentuateJesus's conscious scriptural fulfillment  at  the cross. 2.  Clarification  on Fulfillment  Terminology Before discussing  the  appeal  to  Scripture  in  John 19:28,  it is  important  to  of- fer  a  brief clarification  of  the terms 'quotation', 'allusion'  and  'echo', which  are all employed  for  describing scriptural references  in the  New Testament. Build-ing upon the work  of  Beetham,  a  citation  or  quotation  of  Scripture is defined  as 'an intentional, explicit, verbatim  or  near verbatim citation  of  a former text'.''  A 12 E.g. C. K. Barrett,  The  Gospel according to  St John: An Introduction with Commentaryand Notes  on the  Greek Text  (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1978,  2nd  ed.), 553;  G.  R. Beasley-Murray,  John  (WBC 36; Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1999,  2nd  ed.), 316;  D. A. Carson,  The  Gospel according  to  John  (PNTC; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991), 619;  A.  I.  Köstenberger,  John  (BECNT; Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2004),  550; J.  R.  Michaels,  The Gospel of John  (NICNT; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2010), 960;  I. H. Moulton  and  N.  Turner,  A  Grammar  of  New Testament  Greek:  Syntax  (Vol.  3; Edinburgh: T &T Clark, 1963),  344;  BDF §478.13 Bampfylde's claim that 'there  is a  significant difference  in  meaning between  the  twoverbs  TEXÉW  and xeXeióco' is unconvincing  ( lohn  xix  28',  249-50).  Cf. the  discussion of xeXéœ  and xeXeióio  in  L&N, 13.126;  68.22;  BDAG 996-98.14  Cf.  lohn 12:38; 13:18; 15:25; 19:24,  36. 7:38  and  17:12  are  possible exceptions.  A number  of  scriptural allusions have been proposed  for  7:38, though lesus's words'Out  of  his heart will flow rivers  of  living water'  is  likely  a  composite reference  to the scriptural expectation tied  to  the Tabernacles feast. For discussion  and  bibliography,see A.  I.  Köstenberger, 'John',  in  Commentary  on the  New Testament  Use  of  the OldTestament  (ed.  G. K.  Beale  and  D. A. Carson; Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2007),415-512, esp.  454.  There  is no  specific Old Testament text mentioned  in  17:12 whichis ftilfilled, èiough  the  antecedent text is probably Psalm 41:9 [40:10  LXX],  applied  to ludas  in  John 13:18  (cf.  John 6:70).15 So L.T Witkamp, 'Jesus'sThirst in John  19:28-30:  Literal or Figurative?',/BL  5  (1996),489-510, esp.  494;  Moulton and Turner,  Syntax 344;  BDF §478. 16 Cf. G. Delling,  'XEXEIÓCO',  TDNT 8:79-84, esp. 82 n. 16;  D.  J. Moo,  The Old Testament in the  Gospel Passion Narratives  (Sheffield: The Almond Press, 1983), 275-78.17  C. A.  Beetham,  Echoes  of  Scripture  in  the  Letter  of  Paul  to the  Colossians  (BIS  96;  Jesus's  Thirst  at the  ross  EQ ã  34 formal quotation  of Scripture is accompanied by an introductory formula. Forexample, in 19:24 John writes, 'Therefore they said to one another, Let us nottear it, but cast lots for it to see whose it shall be, in order to fulfill the Scripture(iva  r\  yQa \>r\  jtXriQwGfi) [which  says],   They divided my garments among them,and for my clothing they cast lots ', which agrees verbatim with Ps. 21:19 LXX[22:19  MT]  (ôienegioavxo xà Ljiáxiá  |XOD  éavxotç  xdi im  xôv i)xaxia|ióv  \iov  eßaXovxXfiQov). An  informal quotation  lacks an introductory formula, though exhibitsclear dependence on an antecedent text. For example, in John 12:13 the crowdcries out, 'Hosanna Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord, eventhe king of Israel,' which matches the wording of Ps. 117:25-26 LXX [118:25-26MT] (eijXoYimévoç ó ÈQxofiEvoç èv óvó|iaxi xtigíou). An  allusion  is an indirect,apparently intentional reference by the author to a text able to be perceived bythe intended audience.'^ For example, in John 1:51 Jesus tells Nathanael, 'Truly,truly, I say to you, you will see heaven opened, and the angels of God ascend-ing and descending on the Son of Man.' Though Jesus is clearly not giving anexphcit quotation of Scripture, his reference to the angels of God ascending anddescending (xal xoùç  àyyekovç xoii  Geoíi avaßaivovxac >cal xaxaßaivovxac) in-dicates an indirect, but intentional reference to Jacob's dream in Gen. 28:12 (xaloi ayYe^ioi xoij Geoij aveßaivov xal xaxeßaivov  ht  ai)xf)ç).'^ Finally, an  echo  isdefined as a subtle reference to one or more specific texts that may or may notbe consciously intended by the author and is not necessarily clearly recognizedby the intended audience. For example, in light of the chapter's Passover setting(cf. 19:14), John's surprising mention of a hyssop branch (iioaújxa)) in 19:29 maybe interpreted as an echo of Exod. 12:22, where Moses instructs the elders to dipa bunch of hyssop (Ô8O|ir|v  vaaáinov in the blood of the Passover lamb. 3.  The Scriptural Source of John 19:28 No known antecedent text corresponds precisely to ôi\|)(ji) in John 19:28, thoughscholars have posited several possible Old Testament sources, including Psalms22:15 [21:16 LXX],^» 42:2 [41:3 LXX],^' and 69:21 [68:22 LXX].^^ Alternatively,Leiden: Brill, 2008), 17. Beetham for the purposes of his study of Golossians definesa quotation of Scripture as being six or more words in length, which may be moresuitable for Paul's use of Scripture than for lohn's, whose direct appeals to Scriptureare often only a few words (see, for example, Jn. 15:25 and 19:37).18 This definition of allusion is informed by the discussion in Beetham,  Echoes,  17-20.Beetham's definition is necessarily modified to allow for more than one antecedenttext, a common feature of John's use of Scripture.19 M. I. J. Menken calls Jn. 1:51 an 'unmarked quotation'; 'Genesis in John's Gospel and1 John', in  Genesis  in  the  New Testament  ed.  M. J.  J.  Menken and  S.  Moyise;  NTS  466:London: Bloomsbury, 2012), 83-98, citing  83. 20 E.g. Brown,  Death,  2:1073-74.21 E.g. Michaels,/o^n,  961. 22 E.g. H.  N.  Ridderbos,  The Gospel according  to  John:  A  Theological  Commentary  (trans.John Vriend: Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1997), 616-17: Witkamp, 'Jesus's Thirst', 503:Brawley, 'Absent Complement', 437-43.
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