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IT 243 - Chapter 2 Summary

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IT 243 - Chapter 2: Project Management - Summary Project Identification  Potential projects can be identified by a member of an organization that has identified a business need that can be addressedthroughtheapplicationofinformationtechnology.The firststepintheprocessistoidentifythebusinessvaluefor thesystembydevelopingasystemrequestthatprovidesbasic information about the proposed system. Next, the analysts perform a feasibility analysis to determine the technical, economic, and organizatio
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  IT 243 - Chapter 2: Project Management - Summary Project Identification    Potentialprojectscanbeidentifiedbyamemberofanorganizationthathasidentifiedabusinessneedthatcanbeaddressedthroughtheapplicationofinformationtechnology.Thefirststepintheprocessistoidentifythebusinessvalueforthesystembydevelopingasystemrequestthatprovidesbasicinformationabouttheproposedsystem.Next,theanalystsperformafeasibilityanalysistodeterminethetechnical,economic,andorganizationalfeasibilityofthesystem;ifappropriate,thesystemisapprovedandthedevelopmentprojectbegins. Feasibility Analysis    Afeasibilityanalysisisusedtoprovidemoredetailabouttherisksassociatedwiththeproposedsystem,anditincludestechnical,economic,andorganizationalfeasibilities.Thetechnicalfeasibilityfocusesonwhetherthesystemcanbebuiltbyexaminingtherisksassociated withtheusers’andanalysts’ familiaritywiththefunctionalarea,familiaritywiththetechnology, andtheproject’ssize.Theeconomic feasibilityaddresseswhetherthesystemshouldbebuilt.Itincludesacost  –  benefitanalysisofdevelopmentcosts,operationalcosts,tangiblebenefits,andintangiblecostsandbenefits.Finally,theorganizationalfeasibilityassesseshowwellthesystemwillbeacceptedbyitsusersandincorporatedintotheongoingoperationsoftheorganization.Thestrategicalignmentoftheprojectandastakeholderanalysiscanbeusedtoassessthisfeasibilitydimension. Project Selection    Oncethefeasibilityanalysishasbeencompleted,itissubmittedtotheapprovalcommittee,alongwitharevisedsystemrequest.Thecommitteethendecideswhethertoapprovetheproject,  IT 243 - Chapter 2: Project Management - Summary declinetheproject,ortableituntiladditionalinformationisavailable.Theprojectselectionprocessusesportfoliomanagementtotakeintoaccountalltheprojectsintheorganization.Theapprovalcommitteeweighsmanyfactorsandmakestrade-offsbeforeaprojectisselected. Traditional Project Management Tools    Eventhoughobject-orientedsystemsdevelopmentprojectsaresignificantlydifferentfromtraditionalsystemsdevelopmentprojects,asetofusefultraditionalprojectmanagementtoolscanbeusedtomanageobject-orientedsystemsdevelopmentprojects.Thesetoolsincludeworkbreakdownstructures,Ganttcharts,andnetworkdiagrams.Workbreakdownstructurescanbestructuredeitherbyphaseorbyproduct.Ganttchartsaredrawnusinghorizontalbarstorepresentthedurationofeachtask,andaspeopleworkontasks,theappropriatebarsarefilledinproportionatelytohowmuchofthetaskisfinished.Networkdiagramsarethebestwaytocommunicatetaskdependenciesbecausetheylayoutthetasksasaflowchartintheorderinwhichtheyneedtobecompleted.Thelongestpathfromtheprojectinceptiontocompletionisreferredtoasthecriticalpath. Estimating Project Effort    Use-casepointsareaneffort-estimationtechniquethatisbasedontheuniquecharacteristicsofause-case  –  drivensystemsdevelopmentmethod.Use-casepointsarefoundedonthetwoprimaryconstructsassociatedwithuse-caseanalysis:actorsandusecases.Use-casepointshaveasetoffactorsusedtomodifytheirrawvalue:technicalcomplexityfactorsandenvironmentalfactors.Technicalcomplexityfactorsaddressthecomplexityoftheprojectunderconsideration,whereastheenvironmentalfactorsdealwiththelevelofexperienceofthedevelopmentstaff.Basedonthenumberofuse-casepoints,theestimatedeffortrequiredcanbecomputed.  IT 243 - Chapter 2: Project Management - Summary Creating and Managing the Work plan    Onceaprojectmanagerhasageneralideaoftheefforttodeveloptheproject,heorshecreatesaworkplan,whichisadynamicschedulethatrecordsandkeepstrackofallthetasksthatneedtobeaccomplishedoverthecourseoftheproject.Tocreateaniterativeworkplan,theprojectmanagerfirstbeginswithanevolutionaryworkbreakdownstructurethatallowstheprojectmanagertoprovidemorerealisticestimatesforeachiteration,orbuild,ofasystem.Iterativeworkplansaredecoupledfromthearchitectureofthesystem,thusallowingprojectstobecomparable.Bysupportingcomparabilityamongprojects,evolutionaryWBSsenableorganizationallearningtotakeplace.Scopecreephasalwaysbeenaproblemwithsystemsdevelopmentprojects.Essentially,thefartheralongthedevelopmentprocess,thebettertheunderstandingoftheunderlyingproblemandthetechnologybeingusedbecomes.EstimatingwhatanISdevelopmentprojectwillcost,howlongitwilltake,andwhatthefinalsystemwillactuallydotendstofollowahurricanemodel.Iterativeworkplanssupportchangingrequirementsbysimplysupportingdevelopmentinanincrementalanditerativemanner.Oneapproachthathasbeenusedquitesuccessfullytoaddressscopecreepistimeboxing.Timeboxingsetsafixeddeadlineforaprojectanddeliversthesystembythatdeadlinenomatterwhat,eveniffunctionalitymustbereduced.Finally,managingrisksthroughthedevelopmentprocessisessential.Ariskassessmentisusedtohelpmitigateriskbecauseitidentifiespotentialrisksandevaluatesthelikelihoodofriskanditspotentialimpactontheproject. Staffing the Project    Staffinginvolvesdetermininghowmanypeopleshouldbeassignedtotheproject,assigningprojectrolestoteammembers,developingareportingstructurefortheteam,and  IT 243 - Chapter 2: Project Management - Summary matchingpeople’sskillswiththeneedsoftheproject.Staffing alsoincludesmotivating theteamtomeettheproject’s objectivesandminimizingconflictamongteammembers.Bothmotivationandcohesivenesshavebeenfoundtogreatlyinfluenceperformanceofteammembersinprojectsituations.Teammembersaremotivatedmostbysuchnonmonetaryrewardsasrecognition,achievement,andtheworkitself.Clearlydefiningtherolesonaprojectandholdingteammembersaccountablefortheirtaskscanminimizeconflict.Somemanagers createaprojectcharterthatliststheproject’snormsand groundrules. Environment and Infrastructure Management    TheenvironmentworkflowsupportsthedevelopmentteamthroughoutthedevelopmentprocessbyensuringthattheteamhasaccesstotheappropriatesetofCASEtoolsandstandardsthatwillbeusedduringthedevelopmentprocess.Casetoolsareatypeofsoftwarethatautomatesallorpartofthedevelopmentprocess.Standardsareformalrulesorguidelinesthatprojectteamsmustfollowduringtheprojecttoallowprojectstobecomparable.Theinfrastructuremanagementworkflowdealswithsettinguptheprojectdocumentationandidentifyingpossiblereusablecomponents,frameworks,libraries,andpatterns.
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