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Lab 3

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   1 Executive Summary: Two mud samples were analyzed for any impurities that were present in the mud. This is important because these impurities could affect the production greatly so it is important to keep monitoring it and this was done using a retort analysis. Only one sample had oil present in it and that was the 13 ppg mud. Further tests were conducted to check for any sand present in the mud and both of the muds contained sand so we had to add HCL to dissolve any calcium carbonate if any was present and this was determined by the use of a titration. Objective: 1.   Separating and measuring the volumes of water, oil and solids in the sample of drilling mud using the retort analysis. 2.   To determine the sand content of the water based mud-drilling samples.  3.   To determine the calcium carbonate content of the water based drilling muds.    Aim To determine the volume of the water, oil and solids in a mud sample and also to find the sand content and the calcium carbonate levels of two different drilling muds. Theory A mud is said to be contaminated when a foreign material enters the mud system and causes undesirable changes in mud properties, such as density, viscosity, and filtration. Generally, water-based mud systems are the most susceptible to contamination. Mud contamination can result from overtreatment of the mud system with additives or from material entering the mud during drilling. The most common contaminants to water-based mud systems are: 1.   Solids (added, drilled, active, inert) 2.   Gypsum/anhydrite (Ca++) 3.   Cement/lime (Ca++) 4.   Makeup water (Ca++, Mg++) 5.   Soluble bicarbonates and carbonates (HCO3−, CO3— ) 6.   Soluble sulfides (HS−, S— ) 7.   Salt/salt water flow (Na+, Cl−)  Since these contaminants can affect the formation it is important to keep monitoring your mud and one of the methods is the retort analysis where the sample is heated   2 and the oil, water and sand is separated and the percentage could be found. The sand content was then found using a sieve analysis and this is done by    The mud and distilled water is put together and then passed through a sieve where the particles of sand was collected.    The sand was then washed into a tube and the sand was left to settle and the water is drained out leaving the sand.    Then 15% HCL was added to completely dissolute the calcium carbonate. Then the calcium carbonate is determined by adding more calcium carbonated to remove any calcium carbonate. Then a titration is performed and the values were recored. Procedure As stated in the lab script. Results: Column1 Sample 1 Sample 2 Retort Analysis Percent Volume Oil- Vo 8 0 Percent Volume Water 90 75 Percent Volume Solids 2 25 Sand Content Volume % sand & calcium carbonate 2 7 Volume % sand after acidization. 2 4 CaCO3 Analysis Volume Titrating solution, ml - 2.1 Conc. Calcium carbonate, lb/bbl - 7.35   3 Calculations: The measures volumes (mL) of oil and water are converted into volume percents based on the volume of the whole mud of the retort cup. Volume (%) Oil = 100 X (Oil Volume collected/Sample Volume) = 8% Volume (%) Water = 100 X (Water Volume collected/Sample Volume) = 90% Volume (%) Solids = 100 –  (Oil and Water Volume collected) = 2% Volume of Calcium Carbonate for 13ppg mud Volume of Calcium Carbonate = Volume (mL) of Titrating solution*3.5 = 2.1 *3.5 = 7.35 lb/bbl Discussion: The two mud samples were tested using a retort analysis and it was seen that sample 1 contained oil whereas sample 2 did not contain any also in both of the samples contained solids. We added 15% HCL to the samples and it was seen that sample 2 created an effervescence and the sand content was reduced by 3%. This reduction showed that there was calcium carbonate present and was dissolved so this was a representation of the true sand content. This can be represented in an equation: CaCO 3  + 2HCl -----> CaCl 2  + H 2 O + CO 2 A titration was conducted and the concentrarion of the calcium carbonate was found to be 7.35 lb/bbl.   4 Question 1: It can be inferred from the results that sample 2 contains calcium carbonate, since after acidization with 15% HCl, effervescence was created and the volume percentage of sand reduced. Question 2: Calcium carbonate is used to prevent fluid invasion of permeable zones, and to prevent loss of circulation during drilling, work over, and completion activities. Calcium carbonate is applicable in all drilling fluids, aqueous and non-aqueous. Conclusion: The experiment was carried out successfully and it was found that the 9ppg mud was an contaminated with oil with sand and the 13ppg mud was an oil free mud contaminated with calcium carbonate References: http://petrowiki.org/PEH%3ADrilling_Problems_and_Solutions Nguyen, T. (2012). Drilling Engineering. PE-311 . New Mexico Tech. The importance of Particle size for drilling mud formation . (n.d.). Retrieved from Engineering Live: http://www.engineerlive.com/content/18374

ip6-dhcp.pdf

Jul 23, 2017
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