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Lab Manual 02 IP Addressing Scheme & VLSM

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  Data Communication and Computer Networks DCCN - EEE314 Lab 2 IP Addressing Scheme & VLSM COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT) Islamabad Campus  Lab 02 IP Addressing Scheme & VLSM Classful network is a term used to describe the network architecture of the Internet until around 1993. It divided the address space for Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4Each class, coded by the first three bits of the address, defined a different size or type (unicast or multicast) of the network. ) into five address classes. All networks in practical use have different sizes. For example, a company that will have 50 computers, will not need a network of 5000 computers, And on the contrary, a company that needs 5000 computers does not need a network that can only hold 50 computers. This is the main reason that engineers decided that IP address space should be divided in different classes in order to meet different requirements. This addressing scheme is illustrated below.   This network is 8-bit network prefix. Its highest bit is set to 0, and contains a 7-bit network number and a 24-bit host number . Class A Network (/ 8 Prefixes)  A maximum of 126, which is (2 7  -2,) networks can be defined ; two is subtracted because all an (0 and 1) subnet cannot be used in certain routers using RIP-1 Protocol. Each network supports a maximum of 16,777,214 (2 24  -2) hosts per network. You must subtract two because the base network represents host “0”, and the last host on the network is actually used for 1s ( broadcast ) and may not be assigned to any host. The class A  network address block contains 2 31  power (2,147,483,648) individual addresses. The IPv4 address space contains a maximum of 2 32  power (4,294,967,296) addresses, which mean that a class A  network address space is 50% of the total IPv4 unicast, address space. This network is a 16-bit network prefix; its highest bit order is set to 1-0 . It is a 14-bit network number with a 16-bit host number. Class B Networks (/16 Prefixes) This class defines 16,384 (2 14 ) /16 networks, and supports a maximum of 65,534 (2 16  -2) hosts per network. Class B /16 block address is (1,073,741,824) = 2 30 ; therefore it represent 25% of the total IPV4. All contents are Copyright © 1992–2007 Network Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. This document is Network Public Information. Page 1 of 9    D   C   C   N   -   E   E   E   3   1   4 DCCN ExplorationNetworks, IP Addressing Scheme, Subnetting,VLSM & Packet Tracer Lab 02: IP Addressing Scheme & VLSM    This is a 24-bit network prefix; it has a 3 bit set to the highest order 1-1-0 . It is a 21-bit network number with 8-bit host number. Class C Networks (/24 Prefixes) This class defines a maximum of 2,097,152 (2 21  ) /24 networks. And each network supports up to 254 (2 8  -2) hosts. The entire class C network represents 2 29  (536,870,912) addresses; therefore it is only 12.5 % of the total IPv4. There are two other networks that are not commonly used, class D and Class E. Class D has its highest bit order set to 1-1-1-0  it is used to support multicasting. Class E has its highest bit order set to 1-1-1-1  which is reserved for experimental use. Other Networks Network classes are summarized in following table. Task1: For The IP address 192.168.0.1 find the network mask, broadcast address number of hosts, IP address of first and last host. All contents are Copyright © 1992–2007 Network Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. This document is Network Public Information. Page 2 of 9    D   C   C   N   -   E   E   E   3   1   4 DCCN ExplorationNetworks, IP Addressing Scheme, Subnetting,VLSM & Packet Tracer Lab 02: IP Addressing Scheme & VLSM  Introduction to Subnetting Purpose: The lab is intended to familiarize the students with a networking technique of SUBNETTING. At the end of the lab the student must know: ã The Purpose of SUBNETTING.   ã Steps of SUBNETTING.   ã How to perform SUBNETTING on different IP Classes.   ã Calculating the ranges of Hosts in the Subnet.   ã Finding the Broadcast address of the Subnet.   ã How to make a SUBNET on Linux machines.   ã How to  Broadcast on that Subnet. prompt>  ifconfig <interfaceNo> xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx netmask xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx prompt>  ifconfig eth0 172.20.6.131 netmask 255.255.248.0 prompt>  ping -b <broadcast_ip> Subnetting: In subnetting, a network is divided into smaller subnets with each subnet having its own subnet address. Reasons for Subnetting ã   Imagine a Network Class A with over 16 millions of hosts or a Class B Network with 65 thousand hosts, it is impractical… ã   Most IP address assignments were not used very efficiently. ã   Broadcast problem. ã   Many sites were requesting multiple network numbers due to variable amounts of networks at their sites. Benefits of subnetting ã   Reduced network traffic ã   Simplified management ã   Smaller broadcast domains  ___________________________________________________________________________________ All contents are Copyright © 1992–2007 Network Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. This document is Network Public Information. Page 3 of 9    D   C   C   N   -   E   E   E   3   1   4 DCCN ExplorationNetworks, IP Addressing Scheme, Subnetting,VLSM & Packet Tracer Lab 02: IP Addressing Scheme & VLSM

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