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  NPTEL – Chemical Engineering – Nuclear Reactor Technology Joint Initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD Page 1 of 5 Classification of Reactors K.S. Rajan Professor, School of Chemical & Biotechnology SASTRA University  NPTEL – Chemical Engineering – Nuclear Reactor Technology Joint Initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD Page 2 of 5 Table of Contents ! #$%&&'('#%)'*+ *( ,-%#)*,& .............................................................................................. /   #   $ %&%'$() $%'(*+$&  ############################################################################################################### ,   #-   * %&* $%'(*+$  ########################################################################################################################### .   #,   / +0%$ $%'(*+$&  ###################################################################################################################### .   0 ,-(-,-+#-&1%22')'*+%$ ,-%2'+3 ...................................................................................... 4    NPTEL – Chemical Engineering – Nuclear Reactor Technology Joint Initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD Page 3 of 5 In this lecture, we shall discuss the classification of reactors along with the characteristic  parameters for few reactors. At the end of this session, the learners will be able to (i)    broadly classify reactors (ii)   appreciate the purpose of research reactors 1 Classification of reactors  Nuclear reactors can be classified as research , test   and  power   reactors depending on their use for performing research  activities, testing   of materials and for  power   production respectively. 1.1 Research reactors These were built for carrying out basic and applied research in various fields of nuclear engineering and its applications. Some of the activities carried out using research reactors are (i)    Neutron irradiation test on fuel (ii)   Development of materials for structures and other components (iii)   Training of personnel for human resource development (iv)   Research in fission physics, solid state physics and radiation chemistry A list of research reactors of importance developed by India along with their key features is given in Table 1. The following table has been compiled with data available in the website of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC, www.barc.gov.in/reactor) Table 1. Key features of Indian Research Reactors Name APSARA Cirus Dhruva Kamini   Reactor Type Swimming pool type/ Thermal Reactor Vertical Tank Type / Thermal Reactor Vertical Tank Type / Thermal Reactor Vertical Tank Type / Thermal Reactor Date of Criticality August 4,1956 July 10,1960 August 8,1985 October 29,1996 Reactor Power (Thermal) 1 MW (Maximum) 40 MW (Maximum) 100 MW (Maximum) 30 KW (Nominal) Fuel Material Enriched Uranium - Aluminium alloy Natural Uranium Metal Natural Uranium Metal U-233-Al alloy  NPTEL – Chemical Engineering – Nuclear Reactor Technology Joint Initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD Page 4 of 5 Fuel Element Plates Rods Clusters Plates Fuel Cladding Aluminium alloy Aluminium Aluminium Aluminium Total weight of Fuel 4.5 kg 10.5 T 6.35 T 600 g Core Size 560 mm X 560 mm X 615 mm(H) 2.67m (D) X 3.14m(H) 3.72m(D) x 3.87m(H) 204 mm X 204 mm X 275 mm (H) Max Neutron Flux 10 13  n/cm 2 s 6.5x10 13  n/cm 2 s 1.8x10 14  n/cm 2 s ~10 13 n/cm 2 s Moderator Light water Heavy water Heavy water Light water Coolant Light water Light water Heavy water Natural convection Shut off Rods Cadmium Boron Cadmium Cadmium Cadmium plates Uses Production of isotopes; basic research; shielding experiments; neutron activation analysis; neutron radiography; testing of neutron detectors Production of isotopes ; R & D in reactor technology; manpower training; neutron beam research; neutron activation analysis; development and testing of fuel assemblies; testing of neutron detectors Basic research; isotope production; manpower training; neutron activation analysis; testing of neutron detectors Neutron radiography; calibration of detectors; material characterization; shielding experiments; irradiation studie on samples Reactor Type Vertical Tank Type / Thermal Reactor Vertical Tank Type / Thermal Reactor Vertical Tank Type / Thermal Fast reactor Date of Criticality May 10,1984 November 9,1990 January 14,1961 18-May-72 Reactor Power (Thermal) 100 mW (Nominal) 1 W (Maximum) 100 W (Nominal) 1 W (Nominal) Fuel Material Uranium-233 Uranium-233-aluminium alloy Natural Uranium Metal Plutonium oxide Fuel Element Uranyl Nitrate Solution Plates Rods Pellets Fuel Cladding None Aluminium Aluminium Stainless Steel Total weight of Fuel 400 g 600 g Variable(3.7 T in the first core) 21.6 kg Core Size 148 mm(D) X (250-400) cm(H) 204 mm X 204 mm X 275 mm (H) 2.29m (D) X 4.35m(H) 180 mm(D) X 18 mm(H) Max Neutron Flux 10 7  n/cm 2 s ~10 8  n/cm 2 s 0.5x10 8  n/cm 2 s ~10 8  n/cm 2 s Moderator Light water Light water Heavy water None Coolant Light water Light water Heavy water Air Shut off Rods Cadmium Cadmium Molybdenum Uses U-233 fuel studies; futuristic reactor evaluation Mockup studies for Kamini reactor Reactor Lattice studies Fast reactor physics studies
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