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Les 2 POLITICAL PERSONALITIES 1901-present day 19 presidents, the ones to be asked on exam not the most powerful person in the world, outside the US he may seem so, but domestic political policy is ruled by the Congress (The Senate and the House of Representatives) … he does have a big influence but not the ultimate power, but overseas he does, he has a military (fleets of 12 next countries combined forms that of the US) president also commander in chief (physical power) he cannot dec
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  Les 2 POLITICAL PERSONALITIES 1901-present day 19 presidents, the ones to be asked on exam not the most powerful person in the world, outside the US he may seem so, but domestic political policy is ruled by the Congress (The Senate and the House of Representatives) …  he does have a big influence but not the ultimate power, but overseas he does, he has a military (fleets of 12 next countries combined forms that of the US) president also commander in chief (physical power) he cannot declare war, the only organ that can do so is Congress (he needs to explain why in Congress) e.g.: Vietnam War was not declared (??) he has huge amounts of soft power   diplomacy, ability to talk to leaders he also has within the soft power huge financial power/leverage Treaty with Saddam   using their economic muscle to actually make sure that for instance a particular nation buys American product/buys in American philosophy   US also supports those areas World War II   huge financial support by America to Europe Ability to save, kill people, and also overseas At home he can suggest things (Obamacare)   health care bill was submitted by the executive   health care bill looked nothing like Obama wanted it to be   cuz he has no power in domestic matters Hillary Clinton stands a better chance in 2016 to become president 1901 Theodore Roosevelt (T.R.) significance: first imperial US president first to look over/oversee an American Empire (1896   Spanish American War) Cuba invaded and invades the Philippines Spanish had the power over those areas before Cuba = not far away   opportunities for commercial developments 40-50s: where the rich Americans were employed late 50’s   Fidel Castro    ‘Cuba for the Cubans’  US needed a base in Asia   Asia was going to be the new frontier   Philippines US didn’t need people, but needed markets  Other empires were already there Naval base, launch base for China They are still there (largest American fleet in Asia in Philippines) US still in Cuba (Guantanamo Bay) 1890’s real estate   incarcerate people   Supreme Court, .. have no jurisdiction there strictly illegal before T.R. McKinley got assassinated by some delinquent in US Roosevelt is Vice President   automatically President when sth happens to the President (= accidental presidency) LBJ, Geral Ford, and Truman were accidental president  T.R. was a military man   big guy, physically   mentally he was bright as well unlike other presidents He was a writer, thinker Developed the National Park’s System (proto -green guy) Not only believed in the divine right of US to civilize but also in this Anglo Saxon American link (that the British and Americans were destined to rule the world) In today’s terms he was a racist   he believed in a hierarchy of races (in that period that was the main belief) Degree of arrogance within society (normal and higher people) about white supremacy Reinforced by the thought that the British Empire was still the strongest one in the world T.R. was using/abusing the American power Up until the 1890 ’s the American forces were not that significant   But as a financial economic power they were powerful   later military capability too Cuz   direct correlation between military power and commercial power! UK’s power is diminishing and alongside there is t  heir military Obama announces cuts in the military of US   Americans can no longer afford this massive military power China became the strongest economic power in the world    first time since 1890’s US is overthrown on that matter As America the US gets more powerful as does the president US not only because of itself but also because of us they are the strongest power Spreads its wings to the world to sell its stuff   more production than their own population needs T.R. was a Republican   developed sense that America needs to spread the word of capitalism, liberty/freedom, democracy In 1951 they changed the Constitution so that it’s not only a convention anymore that a president can no longer be president than for 2 terms (2x 4 years) T.R. replaced by Taft   he got stuck in the bath    didn’t do a lot   Next president is significant: Woodrow Wilson (democrat): 1912: 2 terms     egotistical smartass: brighter and smarter than anyone else before presidency he was an academic   takes the US for the 1st time to Europe   World War I   he was a thinker, confidence about himself that annoyed people   believer in the rights of the US to put their footprint on the rest of the world   by 1912 becoming clear that US is gonna be a massive player in international politics because of commercial success (other powers are all worried) huge shift   world was Eurocentric up until WWI    wasn’t about guy being shot   not about the Germans shooting the French   it was about old imperial powers trying to deal with the economic power shift in the world   US upsetting old powers  W.Wilson   neutral   traditional thought until 1917 (no war: before elections) Then decides to go to war when he was elected again Security of US was in danger There was an opportunity that Germans were getting stronger How viable was it? National boundaries of US   protection of being so separated of the rest of the world was now diminishing US needed a big footprint in the world US stopped messing around and sends troops to Europe Significant   they make a difference; Germans realize that they are not going to win (not only in terms of manpower but also equipment & money) racial division in the US army (black and white battalions) slavery abolished   continued in form of segregation W.W. seen as the savior   spent six months in Paris in discussion with the Italians, French, ..   the great Paris peace conference 14 points   affectively providing freedom of the seas (boats regardless of their nationality can negotiate freely), no secret diplomacy, spread the word of democracy …  key plans   League of Nations   huge bureaucracy internationally first stepping stone to UN Wilson was the first president in office to go overseas, was hugely criticized for that (6 months away) Huge political damage back home Most Americans do not see the connection between their success and their relationships overseas (only 59% of Americans have a passport  , they think they don’t need it  ) He goes home to die (by the 1920’s)  His ideas were picked up 15 years later by FDR (srcinally from the Netherlands) Uses many of WW ideas in the 1930- 40’s  Warren Harding   Coolidge Calvin   Hoover (cover whole of the 1920’s all Republicans)  Attempted unsuccessfully to break away from the notion of W ilson’s internationalism  and offering isolationism (remain separate from old world) The word insulation is more appropriate   able to go forth and dominate (20th C became known as the American Century) Wall Street Crash, Great Depression (1928)   famine   most devastating financial crash until now US didn’t understand how money worked in this international world, this ignorance led to the Wall Street Crash and the Great Depression (1928) did not come to an end until WWII Herbert Hoover was there to watch when all this happened Government with a light touch Didn’t believe in intervention Thought that markets have their own natural cycles and that the market will sort itself out and that eventually the great depression will sort itself out and right itself  Since the 1980’s that thought remerged and is the large notion that markets are self  -righting and can adjust their own problems If it takes 20 years for the markets to change/alter (…) Free market/neoliberalism is rubbish   in the lifetime of an individual it does affect a lot 1932 FDR     amazing man he is an interventionist   elected on a basis of a plan not only sort out domestic disaster but also support the rest of the world shout out loudly on domestic stuff, and keep quiet on international matters   otherwise Americans would not have voted for him FDR was disabled    in media (world full of images) it’s important that the physical image of a president is important So he would not have been elected later on when the television was invented (Photographed in a disguised way, so not to show disability) he changed personality, a lot more understanding to others policies to change (1933)   institutions in US to put people to work, closest the US has become no socialist but believed in government support for the different nations military dictatorship in Japan, Hitler coming to power, Mussolini in Italy (fascism) 1st thing FDR did when he saw all this   he recognized Stalin and Russians up until then they had broken relationship with Moscow (14:00) later presidents…  FDR   sent ambassador to the USSR FDR’s attempts to find an answer   but Europe goes to war again FDR declared neutrality    didn’t want to join war again in Europe  Fortunately Japanese bomb Pearl harbor   daft act   declare war on Germany and all allies of Japan FDR now concentrates on a plan for what’s gonna happen after the war   Churchill and Stalin …  Churchill and FDR   plans to stop another World War (III) NWO   new world order   bunch of ideas that creates a template for how you run an international society The Atlantic Charter   forerunner for the New World Order in which we are all sitting now Construction of the UN , financial organizations (IMF) created on the back of the Atlantic Charter    srcinally Woodrow Wilson’s plan not FDR’s  Immediacy to have a plan because the war was in progress This plan meant that the USA would lead the world, this was part of the deal How do you get Churchill to agree on this?   most of the nation states were broke the British were definitely; FDR understood this problem Atlantic Charter = key plan In 1948 comes NATO and out of the back of that comes the Marshall Plan (to reconstruct Europe) happened after FDR’s death (1945) and happened when Harry Truman was in office Our default position is peace? Not really   in the end there is always war What we do is having a perpetual sense to go to war

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