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Competencies Document: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Medical Radiation Technologists Board Competencies Required for the Practice of: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING March 2011 Competencies: Magnetic Resonance
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Competencies Document: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Medical Radiation Technologists Board Competencies Required for the Practice of: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING March 2011 Competencies: Magnetic Resonance Imaging March 2011 Copyright This document is copyright to the Medical Radiation Technologists Board (the Board) and should not be reproduced in whole or part without permission of the Board. First Edition December 1999 Second Edition June 2002 Third Edition September 2004 Fourth Edition 2006 Fifth Edition 2009 Current Edition March 2011 Revision It is the intent of the Board that this document be reviewed at least once every three years. The profession cannot be static due to the ongoing emergence of new analysis and treatment techniques. This document has been written in such a way that new changes in practice and technology can be accommodated readily within the parameters. Page 2 Competencies: Magnetic Resonance Imaging March 2011 INTRODUCTION This document sets out the competencies and skills required by the Medical Radiation Technologists Board (the Board) to practise Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) technology in New Zealand in a safe, professional, patient, and focused manner. The aim is to register: Entry level practitioners who are capable of functioning with a high level of independence, as well as being able to work as part of a team, to provide quality cost-effective services. Graduates who have attained a comprehensive knowledge base that enables specialisation in advanced procedures including those with separate registration requirements. Graduates who are responsible and caring, who have developed attitudes and skills that enable adaptation to health reforms, ongoing ethical issues and technological advances. The document is based on the need for professional competencies consistent with the recommendations of the International Professional Bodies. Please note: this document is not to be viewed as a curriculum. Teaching related to a particular competency can take many different forms and may occur at any time during a course. REGISTRATION IN A SPECIFIED SCOPE OF PRACTICE Medical radiation technology is a registered occupation in New Zealand. It is a legal requirement for people wishing to call themselves medical radiation technologists and practice in any of the defined scopes of practice of medical radiation technology, to be registered with the Medical Radiation Technologists Board and to hold a current practising certificate. The Board has defined the competencies and skill levels required for medical radiation technologists to be registered in any of the following scopes of practice: 1. Diagnostic Imaging General Technologist 2. Radiation Therapist. Nuclear Medicine Technologist 4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologist 5. Sonographer REQUIRED COMPETENCIES The competencies detailed in this document identify the set of key minimum competencies required to register and practise in the Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) Technologist scope of practice, and include a definition of the skills and knowledge required to fulfil those competencies. These minimum competencies are used to: Set national standards for the MRI Technologist scope of practice in medical radiation technology. Cross-reference/assess overseas applicants qualifications for registration in New Zealand. Page Competencies: Magnetic Resonance Imaging March 2011 Identify areas in which prospective MRI Technologists need education to comply with New Zealand standards. Provide guidelines for tertiary institutions who are providing or anticipating providing a course in MRI technology. Assist in the development of core standard units in education. Monitor programme delivery in the educational institutions. COMPETENCIES AND SKILL LEVELS The Board has identified a set of generic competencies that are applicable to and required for registration in all five defined scopes of practice. In addition the MRI Technologist scope of practice has a number of competencies that are specific to MRI. Each competency area is further defined by a number of required skills. Each of these skills is then defined according to a required skill level. The Board has identified three distinctive skill levels:. Can perform the skill satisfactorily without guidance and/or supervision 2. Can perform the skill satisfactorily but requires guidance and/or supervision 1. Can perform some parts of the skill satisfactorily but requires guidance and/or supervision to perform the entire skill Page 4 Competency and s Index Skill Skill Level 1 Communication 1.1 Respect others as individuals 1.2 Interpret information 1. Utilise appropriate communication media 1.4 Demonstrate appropriate staff interactions 1.5 Demonstrate appropriate interactions with others 1.6 Perform in an instructional/educational role 2 2 Apply professional standards Provide holistic patient care 4 Maintain safe practices 2.1 Use protocols, policies and procedures 2.2 Apply regulations and guidelines 2. Apply Board's Code of Ethics 2.4 Practise as a professional 2.5 Maintain standards of practice.1 Assess and provide for physical and psychological needs of patients.2 Demonstrate basic patient care skills. Apply first aid and emergency procedures.4 Ensure patient care 4.1 Identify and apply relevant safety requirements and procedures 4.2 Identify equipment faults 4. Minimise potential hazards - chemical 4.4 Minimise potential hazards - physical 4.5 Minimise potential hazards - biological 4.6 Minimise potential hazards - electrical 4.7 Minimise potential hazards - ionising and non-ionising radiation 2/ 2/ 5 Operate equipment 5.1 Describe the principles and operation of equipment 5.2 Prepare equipment for use 5. Use ancillary equipment 5.4 Operation of equipment 5.5 Use processing equipment 5.6 Use data storage equipment 5.7 Ensure equipment is maintained 5.8 Shut down equipment 6 Imaging requirements 6.1 Interpret request form 6.2 Evaluate patient compatibility with protocols and imaging requirements 6. Obtain informed consent 6.4 Ensure patient preparation 6.5 Recognise the need to consult Page 5 Skill Skill Level 7 Produce diagnostic image 7.1 Select appropriate equipment 7.2 Select appropriate technique/protocol 7. Position patient 7.4 Acquire image 7.5 Process and evaluate image 7.6 Assess further requirements 8 Management 9 Quality service management 10 Research and professional development 8.1 Describe and apply management principles 8.2 Demonstrate stock control measures 8. Contribute to work flows to optimise equipment, resources and facilities 8.4 Contribute towards an optimal cost effective service 9.1 Describe fundamental principles of quality management 9.2 Participate in and evaluate quality assurance programmes 10.1 Describe principles of research and development 10.2 Initiate a report on research and development 10. Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of continuing professional development (CPD) 2/ 2 Page 6 Communication Skill 1.1 Respect others as individuals 1. Identify ways in which gender, age, ethnicity, culture, socioeconomic status, disability and other factors may impact on interpersonal interactions. 2. Evaluate appropriate respect, empathy, cultural sensitivity and rapport in a variety of situations.. Establish and maintain rapport. Skill Level Demonstrates respect for all others in clinical and professional situations Values and self concept Social, culture, religious and gender grouping Physical and mental disabilities Communication styles Appropriate and inappropriate rapport Empathy Treaty of Waitangi Health beliefs and attitudes Page 7 Communication Skill 1.2 Interpret information 1. Demonstrate skills of active listening. 2. Demonstrate observational skills and appropriate responses in clinical settings.. Demonstrate the ability to interpret information appropriately. 4. Discuss a range of ways in which instructions may be given, and evaluate the effectiveness of each. Skill Level Uses appropriate listening and observational skills and appropriate responses in the clinical setting Processing and analysing information Sequencing instructions Verification process Sensory feedback Body language Physical signs and symptoms Language/jargon Articulation and clarity Safety/screening protocols Page 8 Communication Skill 1. Utilise appropriate communication media 1. Identify areas where communication of data is part of the professional role. 2. Describe and evaluate a range of media which can be used to communicate information.. Identify confidentiality issues in relation to documentation. 4. Demonstrate communication through a range of media. Skill Level Use a range of media to communicate information effectively Radiology Information systems Patient data documentation Quality assurance documentation Library systems Written, oral, electronic media Confidentiality Privacy Act 199 Health Information Privacy Code 1994 Page 9 Communication Skill 1.4 Demonstrate appropriate staff interactions 1. Describe the role of the MRT in a variety of clinical settings and situations. 2. Discuss factors which facilitate or interfere with a team meeting its objectives.. Identify ways in which a team can resolve conflict. 4. Identify leadership styles and management styles 5. Demonstrate knowledge of the role and function of other staff groups within a clinical setting. 6. Demonstrate ability to function within a multidisciplinary team. Skill Level Interacts with staff in an appropriate professional manner in a range of clinical settings and situations Professionalism Barriers to communication Organisational structures Leadership Group dynamics Conflict resolution Multidisciplinary team setting Page 10 Communication Skill 1.5 Demonstrate appropriate interactions with others 1. Determine the behaviours which are appropriate to patient, public and the health practitioner relationship. Skill Level Uses appropriate interactions with patients, public, and peers in a range of clinical settings and situations Professionalism Patients' rights and responsibilities Human rights Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act 200 Health and Disability Commission Act 1994 Code of Health and Disability Consumers Rights 1996 Page 11 Communication Skill 1.6 Perform in an instructional/educational role 1. Discuss the role of the MRT as instructor. 2. Discuss the role of the MRT as educator.. Understand and acknowledge the different ways in which individuals learn. 4. Identify and apply a range of teaching methods. Skill Level 2 Communicates with individuals and groups in a role which facilitates understanding and learning Preparation of educational material Methods of facilitating learning Feedback/assessment/evaluation Use of educational aids Clinical supervision Page 12 Apply professional standards Skill 2.1 Use protocols, policies and procedures 1. Evaluate the role of protocols. 2. Select and apply relevant protocols, policies and procedures. Skill Level Complies with protocols, policies and procedures Types of protocols Technique fundamentals Health and safety Organisational protocols, policies and procedures Page 1 Apply professional standards Skill 2.2 Apply regulations and guidelines 1. Locate relevant legislation. 2. Apply relevant legislation to workplace.. Identify responsibilities of designated staff. Skill Level 2 or (as indicated in the content) Complies with legislation and codes of safe practice in all aspects of work 2 Accident Compensation Health Practitioners Competence Corporation booklet on the Code of Assurance Act 200 Safe Practice (Chemical) Health and Disability Commissioners Act 1994 Official Information Act 1982 and Code of Health and Disability Consumers Rights 1996 Consumer Guarantees Act 199 Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992 Employment Legislation: Privacy Act 199 and Health Information Holidays Act 200 Privacy Code 1994 Employment Relations Act New Zealand Bill of Rights 1990 Human Rights Act 199 Radiation Protection Act 1965 National Radiation Laboratory Codes of Safe Practice RANZCR Guidelines Page 14 Apply professional standards Skill 2. Apply the Board's Code of Ethics 1. Describe the role and application of the Code of Ethics. 2. Evaluate ethical principles relating to health care systems.. Discuss moral positions in relation to ethical problems. Skill Level Complies with the Board's Code of Ethics Concept of ethics and morals Ethical principles Medico-legal issues Privacy/confidentiality Informed consent Patient advocacy Patient rights and responsibilities Bioethics Values Page 15 Apply professional standards Skill 2.4 Practise as a professional 1. Identify professional domain and responsibilities. 2. Justify boundaries created by own value system.. Evaluate extent of own competency. 4. Maintain minimum competency standards. 5. Determine professional limitations. 6. Display personal integrity. Skill Level Demonstrates professional, competent behaviour Self and peer appraisal/evaluation Principles of professionalism Page 16 Apply professional standards Skill 2.5 Maintain standards of practice 1. Identify and participate in continuing education opportunities. 2. Demonstrate professional accountability for their work and behaviour.. Discuss the legal implication of errors 4. Support peers in acquisition of knowledge and skills. Skill Level Demonstrates commitment to professional responsibility and accountability Evaluation and appraisal programmes Annual practising certificates Professional associations and affiliations Continuing professional development Relevant legislation International standards of practice Page 17 Provide holistic patient care Skill.1 Assess and provide for physical and psychological needs of patients 1. Identify when there is a need to assist the patient. 2. Demonstrate a non-judgmental caring respect for patients in all situations.. Discuss age and developmental differences in patients. 4. Perform procedures ensuring patient safety. 5. Identify and respond to patient's psychosocial needs. Skill Level Responds appropriately to an assessment of a patient's physical and psycho-social condition Human development Special needs Manual handling Privacy and confidentiality Anxiety, depression and stress Human motivation and emotion Health and Disability Commission Act 1994 Warmth and comfort Safety and security Empathy Human rights Claustrophobia Page 18 Provide holistic patient care Skill.2 Demonstrate basic patient care skills 1. Recognise the need for basic patient care practices. 2. Demonstrate basic patient care practices. Skill Level 2 or (as indicated in content) Demonstrates an ability to carry out basic patient care skills 2 Dressings Aseptic technique IV check/assist skills Suction Oxygen saturation monitor Toileting patients Infection control Manual handling techniques Signs of life Wound/skin reactions Contrast media and other drugs commonly used in the clinical setting Page 19 Provide holistic patient care Skill. Apply first aid and emergency procedures 1. Identify when there is an emergency situation. 2. Describe protocols for dealing with an emergency situation.. Identify patients at risk from allergic reactions. 4. Demonstrate first aid to the level as expected of a comprehensive first aid certificate. Skill Level Reacts appropriately in an emergency situation Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation Emergency protocols Triage procedures Signs and symptoms of allergic reaction Signs and symptoms of respiratory and cardiac arrest Diabetic/asthmatic and other high-risk patients Page 20 Provide holistic patient care Skill.4 Ensure patient care 1. Discuss procedure instructions with patients. 2. Recognise physical signs of procedural complications.. Describe interventions in a crisis situation. 4. State and carry out care during and post procedure. 5. Describe post procedure instructions to patients. Skill Level Demonstrates holistic patient care Procedural complication Critical situation intervention Post procedure care Ongoing instruction Communicate with appropriate personnel Page 21 Maintain safe practices Skill 4.1 Identify and use relevant safety regulations and procedures 1. Implement the principles which dictate the criteria for a safe environment and practice. Skill Level Demonstrates knowledge and application of documents relative to safe practice Legislation Regulations Policies, protocols and procedures Standards of practice Incident reporting Hazard identification Page 22 Maintain safe practices Skill 4.2 Identify equipment faults 1. Identify when equipment is not operating correctly. 2. Verify fault where possible through appropriate test procedure.. Implement reporting and corrective action procedures. 4. Identify appropriate follow-up procedure. Skill Level Demonstrates recognition of equipment faults and responds appropriately Equipment design Principles of equipment operation Quality assurance procedures Physical environment Service protocols Page 2 Maintain safe practices Skill 4. Minimises potential hazards - chemical 1. Recognise chemical hazards in the workplace. 2. Demonstrate ways of minimising chemical hazards.. Describe the effects on the body of chemicals used in the workplace. Skill Level 2 or (as indicated in content) Maintains a working environment safe from chemical hazards 2 Resource Management Act 1991 Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992 Air-conditioning/venting systems Chemical handling/storage/spills Protective equipment Monitoring of staff - sensitivity, allergies Page 24 Maintain safe practices Skill 4.4 Minimise potential hazards - physical 1. Recognise physical hazards in the workplace. 2. Demonstrate ways of minimising physical hazards in the workplace. Skill Level Maintains a working environment safe from physical hazards Types of physical hazards Emergency equipment and systems Emergency procedures Design of equipment and accessories Safe use of equipment Ergonomics Page 25 Maintain safe practices Skill 4.5 Minimise potential hazards - biological 1. Recognise biological hazards in the workplace. 2. Demonstrate ways of minimising biological hazards in the workplace.. Display ability to decrease the risk of cross infection in a department. Skill Level Maintains a working environment safe from biological hazards Correct use and disposal of sharps Infection control and universal precautions Sterile procedures Waste disposal Page 26 Maintain safe practices Skill 4.6 Minimise potential hazards - electrical 1. Recognise electrical hazards in the workplace. 2. Demonstrate ways of minimising electrical hazards in the workplace. Skill Level Maintains an electrically safe environment in the workplace Relative risks Fault reporting procedures Electrical regulations regarding zones Basic electrical safety Compatibility of equipment with other electrical devices Equipment manual Page 27 Maintain safe practices Skill 4.7 Minimise potential hazards - electro-magnetic radiation 1. Recognise electro-magnetic hazards. 2. Demonstrate ways to minimise electro-magnetic hazards. Skill Level Maintains a working environment safe from radiation hazards MRI safety guidelines Safety reference documentation and media Page 28 Operate equipment Skill 5.1 Describe the principles and operation of equipment 1. Describe components of a MRI unit. 2. Explain the operation of a MRI unit including coils.. Discuss the selection of pulse sequences. 4. Explain and justify the manipulation of imaging parameters and options. 5. Describe image reconstruction processors Skill Level Explains the main structural features and operation of specialised equipment Types of MRI scanners Magnetic field strength Types of coils Gradients Pulse sequences Technical parameters RF system Image reconstruction Artefact reduction techniques Image optimisation Additional imaging options Page 29 Skills Development Profile Operate equipment Skill 5.2 Prepare equipment for use 1. Justify the need for start-up procedures. 2. Describe equipment preparation for imaging.. Perform star
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