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MOTIVATION AND TRAINING OF HUMAN RESOURCES Suzana Adela COLŢA, Gheorghe CRIŞAN TIBISCUS UNIVERSITY OF TIMIŞOARA, FACULTY OF ECONOMICS Abstract: The performances of an organization public or private depend
MOTIVATION AND TRAINING OF HUMAN RESOURCES Suzana Adela COLŢA, Gheorghe CRIŞAN TIBISCUS UNIVERSITY OF TIMIŞOARA, FACULTY OF ECONOMICS Abstract: The performances of an organization public or private depend mainly on the manner that we manage it s most important resource the human resource. That is why, it s important to analyze which are the factors that can influence the implication of every member of the organization in order to achieve the established targets, respectively to direct him towards a certain behavior. In this paper we are trying to establish the connections between motivation, training, satisfaction and performances and, based on a questioner, to propose the emotional constant that is the most important for our country s human resources.also, we present relevant aspects regarding the motivational factors, analyzing at what place are the salaries in the reward packages ensemble. Key words: motivation, training, salaries, rewards, performance JEL classification: 12 Personnel Management From a theoretical point of view, the main problem of motivation refers to determining the meanings through which members of an organization (public or private) each of them with their own necessities and with their own personality can be stimulated to contribute positive and efficient in order to execute the established objectives. On the other hand, through the term motivation it is defined an internal necessity state of the organism that orients behavior in the direction of its satisfaction (Crian, 2007, pp ). In these conditions, it is essential for motivation the fact it influences and starts action, it stimulates and rouses the organism and directs it towards a certain behavior (and towards certain objectives capable to satisfy it). Defined also as the totality of internal behavior mobiles (native or obtained, consciously or unconsciously, simple physiological needs or abstract ideals), motivation is understood not only as the ensemble of motives, but also as a process jostling towards action and stimulation in activity. But usually man acts under the influence of motivational ensembles, and consequently, the concepts that fundament this process are motives, basic and psychosocial needs and expectations. The concept is very complex, multidimensional, and its complexity comes from the fact that the motivational phenomena can t be noticed directly, which makes it difficult to identify and to name them. The supervision and mostly estimating the motives is complicated by diversity, mobility and concatenating the rigorously or apparent, as well as passing from one to another (or from one in other). Even in these conditions, it is important, at some point, for an individual to establish and to manifest a certain motivational configuration extremely dynamic and mobile. The situation is also complicated by the enormous differences between individuals regarding the nature of the motivation that makes the response to be different at resembling (or identical) stimulants as well as the possibilities to satisfying it. 176 However, knowing motivational phenomena s of the members from an organization can be useful in explaining and understanding different components, preventing and ameliorating them (as a result of the manifestation of different types of motivation), as well as stimulating to increase motivation (or to avoid loosing it), thus contributing to maximize organization s efficiency. Unfortunately, when we classify different types of motivation we ascertain difficulties in choosing the criteria that could be used in this purpose. An idea would be to start from the main categories of stimulus implicated in the professional life and to identify the financial, monetary and economic (economic motivation) stimulus, but as well as work (professional motivation) and the interaction between working group members (psycho-social motivation). If we consider motivation from another point of view, defining it as training (Macarie, 2004, pp ), then we are talking about work processes through which the personnel of an organization is influenced to contribute to the establish and accomplish the foreseen objectives, considering the factors that motivates them. Regarding these factors, we shouldn t omit the influences of the external surroundings upon individuals and the organization, which are often so powerful that they can radically change the organization s objectives and their action manner (especially the economic and the politic factor). In general, it s considered that every individual inside the organization accomplishes several roles at the same time (that mark his behavior, attitude and needs) human capital for the organization, consumer of goods, member of a family, a community or a group and a citizen. Also, every man has an unique individuality/ personality that differentiates him from the other members of the organization and that resides in that something specific only to him (we must consider this in the relations inside the collective). In consequence, every organization is formed from different types of people, which imposes renouncing at global approaches in the human resources management (HRM), and instead, having some individual approaches, different with every member. In these conditions, it becomes very important a theoretical defining of several models, theoretical, that would be adapted to the specific and the complexity of an individual. From this perspective, we could state that the responsibility of a human resources manager is at least as important as the responsibility of the person that administrates productive processes and the other resource categories inside an organization. This statement is enforced by an additional argument the human factor has a more complex action and influence, that are beyond the borders of the present economic activity (or administrative) inside the organization, interfering with other segments of the social life and therefore, generating, directly or indirectly, multiple effects. It is an aspect that we must consider when we are speaking about any theoretical model, projected as a pattern applicable only in certain conditions, but which is not adapted (or isn t adapting) to external changes specific for each and every organization. Besides, the development of different approaches of organizations and of management states out the permanent dynamic of the motivation concept. In fact, the inexistence of a single answer to the question What motivates people to work? has a result a multitude of theories that schematizes determination, motivation, engagement and as a final purpose the participation of employees. By analyzing the theory, we discover that the possible motivations that make people act in order to achieve the organization s targets can be grouped in the following criteria: 1. after signification: 177 positive motivation, based on increasing effort and employees contribution to achieving the organization s objectives, through amplifying the satisfaction from these (ensured through the use of satisfaction generated by motivation increased salaries, awards, promotions and congratulation, and performance accessibility for all employees); negative motivation, materialized in threatening the personnel about reducing satisfaction from work, if the objectives of the organization aren t achieved (using motivations generating nuisances decreasing salaries, penalties, retrogrades, reprimands and others, that generate tension, pessimistic expectations and a low moral condition of employees). 2. after content: o economic motivation, which follows the satisfaction of expectations and of economical needs of employees (salaries, bonuses, profit, promotions, penalties, charges, driving facilities especially used in firms); o moral-spiritual motivation, which follows the satisfaction of these type of expectations and needs (contentedness, commendation, critics, reprimands, titles and celebrations). 3. after individual and organizational reporting: o intrinsically motivation (internal or direct), which is consistent in determining the individual to realize the organization s objectives through effort and implication, because this way he obtains personal satisfactions a motivation focused on the individual (represent a relation between expectation, aspiration and his feelings and respectively the work content), realized through occupying and attributing posts in concordance with potential and expectations); o extrinsically motivation (external or indirect), is consistent in stimulating the individual to achieve the organization s objectives because he would obtain, from the organization, material and moral recompenses (motivation based on the individualorganization relation, consistent with satisfying of the individual expectations regarding the organization s reactions). 4. after the content of the visaed content of the individual side: o cognitive motivation, that visas the intellectual side of an individual and is based on the needs regarding informing, knowing, learning and controlling the environment; o affective motivation, that visas the human, sentimental side of an individual, based on his need of being appreciated, loved, liked and feeling good. But, we shouldn t forget the fact that in order to achieve a good training the motivation process has to be complex this assumes a combined use of material and moral stimulants, differentiated (based on the characteristics of each person and each work place) and gradual, respectively to satisfy, successively, the personnel s necessities correlated with its contribution. So, it is clear that the realization of all the other management functions is decisively conditioned by training quality. The most difficult task that a manager has to fulfill is precisely the one about learning how to motivate his employees (and especially how to maintain their motivation). Unfortunately (or fortunately) every person is different from another, so that an element that motivates an employee can displease another. That is why the method used for motivation should be suitable for each and every one. What happens when the employees are unmotivated? It is obviously that a series of reactions appear, and this obliges us to ask (our self) some natural questions concerning this aspect. 178 Firstly, what stops the employees from being motivated? The answers could be one of the following causes (alone or combined) repetitive tasks, unclear instructions, decisional incoherence, unclear vision, mission or organizational values, useless rules, unproductive meetings, inequity, lack of communication, discouraging answers, week performance tolerance, over-control, unrecognizing of achievements and others. In these conditions, what motivates the employees? In this case there can also be multiple answers competitive tasks (that give a feeling of fulfilmen, responsibility, development, satisfaction and a promising promotion perspective), recognizing the efforts made, trust and support from employers, the possibility to finish a task and working in a nice and harmonious environment. But, how do motivated employees look like? No doubt, they are either full of energy and initiative, and committed and dedicated to their work, either they want to think on their own, either they are seeking opportunities to improve their capacities (having a pro-active and positive attitude in solving problems), either they establish their own objectives and challenges. Having these answers, we need to find the way how to motivate employees We won t detail the multitude of factors that influence employees motivation and that are concentrated on 4 directions important/useful work (this assumes delegating tasks and responding for their achievement, explaining the impact of work, participating in taking decisions), recognition (expressed through encouraging the special acts, sincere congratulations, celebrating any progress, offering a positive feedback at any improved performance, appreciating the value of assuming risk and mistakes), personal credibility (through creating an opened and stimulating environment, that assumes respecting the organization s basic values, the courage of admitting mistakes, a constant positive attitude, opening to opinions and a high attention to the team s emotional needs) and working with people (efficient management, so hat the employees to give their best without imposing restrictive rules or sanctions). Beyond these particular aspects, it can also be recommended valuing individuals as persons, generating a collegial atmosphere, orienting towards results, keeping employees up to date with new developments, treating mistakes in a constructing way, permanent guidance for the employees, encouraging team members to participate in taking decisions. Thus the members of an organization are its most important asset, their motivation represents the responsibility of all managers, which must guide them and show them how to satisfy their own needs that are extremely different. It is obvious that an organization s performance is influenced by the way that the compensations are used, seen as motivational factors (Deaconu, 2004, pp ) which attributed to salaried are wanted/expected and ensure a direct proportional report between the supplementary effort of the salaried and improving the performance. In these conditions, the recompense management, is the process of elaboration and appliance of the following ensembles material and immaterial, financial and nonfinancial or of the facilities/advantages attributed to each individual (or organization) based on their activity and the proved competence. Such a recompense system can include indirect recompenses protection programs (medical, life or accident insurance, pensions, pension bonuses, unemployment benefits), paying the time that hasn t been worked (paid leaves, legal holidays, sick leaves, anniversaries, movement time) or services or other recompenses (facilities for spending free time, work car, financial consulting, holidays without pay, paying tuitions, protection equipment, paying for transport) and other direct recompenses, under the form of basic wages, stimulants system (commissions, differentiated wages and additions) of the going wages and of the delayed payment. 179 Projecting and applying a recompense system is one of the most complex activities of the human resources management, because while certain activities from this field are important only for some individuals, the recompenses are important for the entire personnel of the organization. Also, the managerial practice underlines the fact that the recompense system has to satisfy a variety of individual values, which are changing in time, and assumes, most of the times, the projection of complementary recompense packages, that have to be made and dosed appropriate (function of the specific of the post and of the conditions in which an activity takes place, as well as the knowledge and ability level of the employees of those posts), that has an accessible cost for the organization and that considers the different cost of life from different geographic areas. And, least but not last, we have to think an appropriate wage system as an important component of the recompense system that represents the most important category of obligations that an employer has regarding his employees (wages and afferent costs rise up to 60% from the total extrapolation costs). In addition, that wage system must consider the union s interests (that will try to impose the highest price for the work force) and the competitor s behavior (which will try to attract the best trained personnel). That is the reason why, an efficient wage system should consider both the external influences, as well as the internal factors (organization s capacity to honor wages commitments, compatibility to other organizations, the union s negotiation force, the conditions from the work force market, life cost, customs and practices). Besides, the manager of an organization should ask himself an essential question related to the wages system The salary should be determined based on the post or based on a person s contribution to the functioning of the organization? Usually, at the present time mix systems are being used, that can predict, among others, different criteria, decision s nature and frequency, attributions in the field of cost management, knowledge level, hierarchical weight, results and communication intensity. But the elaboration of any wage system should have in mind the fact that the wage is formed is subjected to the market s mechanism and that it s negotiated, so that it wouldn t be lower than the minimum enacted value, and to ensure at equal work an equal wage. Also, the wage reflects the quantity and the quality of the work, and it takes into consideration the professional qualification level and the work condition and it is confidential. On the other hand, starting from the accumulated experience, different manager have tried to establish certain wages principles and to offer, at the same time, directions to perfect them, in order to be as adequate as possible to the actual and the perspective conditions: the basic wages have to realize an acceptable balance between the reality from the market and payment to employees; the relative value the contribution of an organization s employee has to be reflected through the value and the frequency of the wage increase, as well as through the level of the total recompense; good performance is rewarded through a significant amount, reported to the respective performance and clearly differentiated from the normal payment; the promotion and the wage increase must take place simultaneously; judgments upon an individual s performances must include the opinions of the manager, the subordinates, the clients and the third parties; 180 the discussions about the development of individual performance must be held separately from the discussions about wages and they must occur before any wage activity; differential in the treatment of employees has to be, as much as possible, based on the activities functional necessities; wage and the granted advantages must be administrated as a unique system, with a maximum possibility to negotiate with the employees. Motivation and implication can grow if the employees are valued and are treated fear, equitable, as human been and not as simple resources. Besides, the fundamental principle of human resources management is that of the competitive advantage obtained through people, which are the most valuable resources in which we should invest. We shouldn t forget the fact that employee s motivation begins with selfmotivation, which is a process in which the organization s objectives must be corroborated with the individual ones. That is one of the reasons why motivation should be based not only on strong inter-personal relations between employees, but should be also based on compensatory or performance systems of the employees or organizational policies and procedures. Also, in order to support employees to self-motivation inside the organization the following are imposed (ASPER Timiş, 2000) identifying the motivational factors for every member of the organization, collaborating with members for defining the posts that superior values them and correspond to their needs and aspiration, transmitting responsibility and authority towards employees, immediate rewarding of professional performances, implementing the basic principles of performance management, as well as an evaluation criteria of their achievement degree, establishing some SMARTER (Specific, Measurable, Accepted, Realistic, effected in time and Recompense for the ones that are involved) objectives, presenting the employee s contribution in obtaining organizational results, and celebrating the success of a solution. For the training to be real there has to be a unity b
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