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Musical Style Chart 1

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  Style Comparison: Medieval - Renaissance - Baroque – Classical Period Harmony/Tonality Melody Rhythm Timbre/Dynamics Texture Form Medieval (450-1450) Hildegard Leonin Perotin   Machaut Modal No sense of harmony until organum – 10 th   ã 4ths!5ths – rds are dissonant ã on#unct ã Pi$otal!%a$e&lo%ing Limited range ã Melismatic ã 'miguous! ã hythmic Modes ã Hoc*et ã +sorhythm  No indication No s,ecific instrumental musicMono,honic Poly,honic (although homorhythmic)e.t dri$en/tro,hic(mass ,lainchant organum canso motet) Renaissance (1450-100) 2es Pre3Palestrina Modalarefully regulateddissonances ã   rds consonance on#unct and relati$ely unarticulated one ,ainting ocally deri$ed /mooth regular flo% Meter generallyunstressedPrimarily $ocalHomogeneous instrumental families 2ynamics notindicated Poly,honic imitati$e2etermined y te.tantus firmus(mass motet madrigalLute song) Baroque (100-1650) Monte$erdii$aldi78 /8 9achHandel&unctional harmony&ast to moderate harmonic rhythm /hort-range tonalgoals Much se:uencing (circle of 5ths) ich harmonic $ocaulary (lots of 6th chords) /,inning out of melodies Moti$ically deri$edMuch ornamentation Much dis#unct motion ased ontriad /ingle thematic(moti$ic) idea ,er  ontinuous motion%ith a rigid eat or more irregular recitati$e-li*e motion learly articulatedmeter  No distinction  et%een  eats 1 ;  Hemiola atcadences imral contrast(concerto ,rinci,le) 9asso continuonormal erraced dynamics Harmonic counter,oint /o,rano-ass  ,olarity Melody ;accom,animent &amiliar style +nstrumental and $ocal forms 9inary and ternary forms (o,era oratorio suite concert< grosso solo concert<) mo$ement Classical (1650-1=>0)HaydnMo3art9eetho$en &unctionalharmony /lo%er harmonicrhythm Long-range tonalgoals Limited harmonic$ocaulary Modal inflections More  alanced  ,hrases  than 9aro:ue mar*ed yrests and cadences antecedent! conse:uent ,hrasestructure ontrasting themesof   sim,le character %ithin a single mo$ement Motion more $ariedthan 9aro:ue %ith considerale ,auses8 hemes $aried yrhythm Primary accents onfirst eats of measures ?stalishment of modern orchestradominated y strings 2ecline of assocontinuo @raduated and terraced dynamics Melody ; accom,animentA 'lerti ass ounter,oint used in  thematic de$elo,ment Large-scale tonal structures (sonata formrondo inary ternary) hematic de$elo,ment (theme and $ariations)  Style Comparison: Romantic - Impressionism - Modern - Post Modern Period Harmony Melody Rhythm Timbre/Dynamics Texture Form Romantic (1=>0-1B00)/chuert/chumannho,in 9rahms Cagner  &unctional and linear harmony Harmony as color Harmonic rhythme$en slo%er than lassical onal goals includemediantrelationshi,s ?.,anded harmonic$ocaulary Long lyrical!  ,assionate melodies%ith large e.,ressi$e lea,s ?.,ressi$e use of non-chord tones Less-regular  ,hrasing @reater freedom of  ,ulseA %ide range of motionem,o uato ross rhythmshemiola synco,ation imre is e:uallyim,ortant musical ,arameter  @reatly e.,andedorchestrairtuoso soloists Cide range of dynamics Meticulousdynamic indications Homo,honicte.tures Linear counter,oint @reatly e.,andedclassical forms Program music Imressionism (1=B0-1B15)2eussy a$el  Non-functional tertian harmony %ith much use of e.tended tertian chordsHarmony for color Planing ?.otic /calesA%hole tone  ,entatonic octatonic short melodicfragments&luidity of motion Metric amiguity (lurring of arline)?.otic orchestration/utle timral contrasts /oloistic use of instruments Piano is im,ortant means of e.,ression Homo,honicte.tures /ectional forms deri$ed from meansother than tonality /ome use of classical formalmodels Modern (1B00-1B60) /tra$ins*y 9arto* /choenerg rend to%ards atonality  ,olytonality or  ,andiatonicism D?manci,ation of  dissonanceE Harmony deri$edfrom serial techni:ues edefinition of functional tonalityin DNeo-classicismE Fni:ue inno$ati$esonorities?.treme ranges 2is#unct motion'symmetrical  ,hrase structure Melodies deri$edfrom serialtechni:ues eturn to modalityand fol* material ?.tremes of ,aceand motion ?.treme use of synco,ation and irregular accents hanging and additi$e meters +ncreased im,ortance of  ,ercussion ?.treme timralcontrasts Fni:ue inno$ati$e instrumentation andtimres ?.treme dynamiccontrasts ?.tremes of densityand trans,arency /ound mass ontra,untal te.tures es,ecially in serial ,ieces &orms deri$ed from ,rogram eturn to traditional ,rocesses (e8g8 fugue) and formal structures (classical forms)  /ymmetrical structures  (e8g8 archform) Fni:ue forms determined y unusual means(e8g8 te.ture timre) Post Modern (1B60-,resent)eich @lass 'dams eturn to sim,lediatonic harmony +nfluence of ,o,ular music2iatonic melodiesDPhaseE musicPer,etual motion/trong ,ulse raditional orchestration Po,ular and #a33ensemlesHomo,honicLayers of acti$ity Long gradually e$ol$ing changesdefine the formal ,arameters
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