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Myanmar Hazard Profile(2009 July)

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The paper provides Hazard profile of Myanmar.
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    azard profile of Myanmar   i Table of Contents Table   of    Contents   ............................................................................................................   I   List   of    Figures   ................................................................................................................   III   List   of    Tables   .................................................................................................................   IV   Acronyms   and   Abbreviations   .........................................................................................   V   1.   Hazard   Profile   of    Myanmar:   An   Introduction   1.1.   Background   ......................................................................................................................   1   1.2.   Myanmar   Overview   .........................................................................................................   2   1.3.   Development   of    Hazard   Profile   of    Myanmar   :   Process   ...................................................   2   1.4.   Objectives   and   scope   .......................................................................................................   3   1.5.   Structure   of    ‘Hazard   Profile   of    Myanmar’   Report   ...........................................................   3   1.6.   Limitations   .......................................................................................................................   4   2.   Cyclones   2.1.   Causes   and   Characteristics   of    Cyclones   in   the   Bay   of    Bengal   ..........................................   5   2.2.   Frequency   and   Impact   .....................................................................................................   6   2.3.   Comparative   Analysis   of    Two   Recent   Cyclones   ...............................................................   8   2.4.   Looking   Forward   .............................................................................................................   10   3.   Drought/   Dry   zone   3.1.   Introduction   ....................................................................................................................   14   3.2.   The   Dry   Zone   ...................................................................................................................   14   3.3.   Soil   Degradation..............................................................................................................   19   3.4.   Wind   Erosion   ...................................................................................................................   20   3.5.   Deforestation   ..................................................................................................................   20   3.6.   Concluding   Remark   .........................................................................................................   21   4.   Earthquake   4.1.   Causes   and   Characteristics   .............................................................................................   23   4.2.   Frequency   and   Extent   of    Earthquakes   ............................................................................   24   4.3.   Earthquake   Prone   Locations   ...........................................................................................   27   4.4.   Past   Earthquake   Events   in   Myanmar   ..............................................................................   28   4.5.   Work   on   Earthquake   Hazards   .........................................................................................   32   4.6.   Future   Studies/   Research   ...............................................................................................   35   4.7.   Looking   Forward   .............................................................................................................   36   5.   Fire   5.1.   Introduction   ....................................................................................................................   39   5.2.   Fire   Cases   (1983 ‐ 2007)   ...................................................................................................   39   5.3.   Inferences   and   causes   .....................................................................................................   43   5.4.   Conclusion   .......................................................................................................................   44      azard profile of Myanmar   ii 6.   Floods   6.1.   Introduction   ....................................................................................................................   48   6.2.   Flooding   in   Myanmar   ......................................................................................................   48   6.3.   Flood   Vulnerable   Locations   ............................................................................................   50   6.4.   Major   Floods   in   the   Past   (1997 ‐ 2007)   ............................................................................   51   6.5.   Flood   Risk   Reduction   Initiatives   in   Myanmar   .................................................................   53   6.6.   Trends   in   Flooding   ..........................................................................................................   53   6.7.   Looking   Forward   .............................................................................................................   54   7.   Forest   Fire   7.1.   Forest   Fire   in   Myanmar...................................................................................................   56   7.2.   Characteristics,   Causes   and   Hot   Spots   ............................................................................   57   7.3.   Impact   of    Forest   Fire   .......................................................................................................   58   7.4.   Forest   Fire   Risk   Reduction   initiatives   in   Myanmar   .........................................................   59   7.5.   Looking   Forward   .............................................................................................................   60   8.   Landslide   8.1.   Introduction   ....................................................................................................................   62   8.2.   Causes   of    Landslide   .........................................................................................................   63   8.3.   Frequency   and   Impact   ....................................................................................................   65   8.4.   Landslide   Prone   Areas   in   Myanmar   ................................................................................   66   8.5.   Past   Landslides   in   Myanmar   ...........................................................................................   68   8.6.   Landslide   Hazard   Map   ....................................................................................................   69   8.7.   Landslide   Hazard   Mitigation   ...........................................................................................   70   8.8.   Conclusion   .......................................................................................................................   73   9.   Storm   Surge   9.1.   Causes   and   Characteristics   .............................................................................................   75   9.2.   Frequency   and   Impact   ....................................................................................................   76   9.3.   Vulnerable   locations   in   the   Country   ...............................................................................   77   9.4.   Past   Occurrences   ............................................................................................................   77   9.5.   Possibility   of    Storm   Surge   Hazards   .................................................................................   79   9.6.   Recommendation   for   Storm   Surge   Hazard   Reduction   ...................................................   82   10.   Tsunami   10.1.   Causes   and   Characteristics   .............................................................................................   84   10.2.   Frequency   and   Impact   ....................................................................................................   84   10.3.   Vulnerable   locations   in   the   country   ...............................................................................   86   10.4.   Past   occurrence   inferred   from   historical   earthquakes   and   flooding   ..............................   86   10.5.   Possibility   of    Tsunami   Hazards   .......................................................................................   88   10.6.   Recommendation   for   Tsunami   Risk   Reduction   ..............................................................   89
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