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Napoleonic Wars and the Law of unintended consequences

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1. The Napoleonic Wars And The Law of Unintended Consequences 2. Overview <ul><li>Historical background </li></ul><ul><li>Major…
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  • 1. The Napoleonic Wars And The Law of Unintended Consequences
  • 2. Overview <ul><li>Historical background </li></ul><ul><li>Major battles </li></ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Ripple effects ie unintended consequences </li></ul>
  • 3. Napoleonic Wars and French Revolutionary Wars <ul><li>1794 onwards </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple coalitions arrayed against French armies </li></ul><ul><li>Lazare Carnot and Napoleon Bonaparte </li></ul><ul><li>On return from Egypt, late 1799 Napoleon seized power </li></ul><ul><li>War went on till his comprehensive defeat at Battle of Waterloo on 18 June 1815 </li></ul>
  • 4. Battle of the Nile <ul><li>France wanted colonies in the Levant </li></ul><ul><li>Supplement income and gain territory </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon departed in late 1790s with this objective </li></ul><ul><li>British fleet of the Mediterranean, under Lord Nelson, blockaded Alexandria and destroyed the French fleet </li></ul><ul><li>Army plus a large number of scholars stranded in Egypt </li></ul>
  • 5. Battle of Copenhagen <ul><li>Lord Nelson led a group of 14 ships of the line </li></ul><ul><li>Objective: Attack and scare Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent them from signing a treaty </li></ul><ul><li>Used his blindness as an excuse to press on with attack when his over-cautious commander ordered cessation of fire </li></ul><ul><li>Knocked Russia out of immediate war </li></ul>
  • 6. Battle of Trafalgar <ul><li>Napoleon planned invasion of England – Armee d'Angleterre </li></ul><ul><li>Instructed Admiral Villeneuve to lead the English on a wild-goose chase before doubling back </li></ul><ul><li>Nelson cornered Villeneuve at Cape Trafalgar </li></ul><ul><li>22 English ships versus 33 Spanish and French ships </li></ul><ul><li>Crushing victory for Nelson; French naval ambitions buried forever </li></ul>
  • 7. Battle of Trafalgar
  • 8. HMS Victory
  • 9. Law of Unintended Consequences <ul><li>Any intervention in a complex system may or may not have the intended result, but will inevitably create unanticipated and often undesirable outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly used as caution against a hubristic approach to life </li></ul>
  • 10. Unintended Consequences <ul><li>Decoding of hieroglyphics </li></ul><ul><li>Spain's demise as a colonial power </li></ul><ul><li>Independence for Latin America </li></ul><ul><li>France's demise as a continental power </li></ul><ul><li>Idea of a united Europe ie modern EU zone </li></ul>
  • 11. Rosetta Stone <ul><li>Stranded French scholars studied Rosetta stone </li></ul><ul><li>Sylvestre de Sacy pioneered the translation of the Demotic script </li></ul><ul><li>Followed by Thomas Young and J-F Champollion, the true breakers of the code of hieroglyphics </li></ul>
  • 12. South American independence <ul><li>Venezuela: 1811-21 </li></ul><ul><li>Argentina: 1816 </li></ul><ul><li>Bolivia: 1822 </li></ul><ul><li>Chile: 1810-11 </li></ul><ul><li>Ecuador: 1809-22 </li></ul><ul><li>Colombia: 1819 </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil: 1822 </li></ul><ul><li>Paraguay: 1811 </li></ul><ul><li>Peru: 1821 </li></ul><ul><li>Uruguay: 1825 </li></ul>
  • 13. Thank you! Suggested Reading: 1. Aubrey Maturin series by Patrick O'Brian 2.Admiral Bolitho series by Alexander Kent 3.Hornblower series by C.S.Forester
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