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NATIONAL REPORT SPAIN. Study on Volunteering in the European Union Country Report Spain

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NATIONAL REPORT SPAIN Study on Volunteering in the European Union CONTENTS 1 GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT VOLUNTEERING IN SPAIN History and contextual background Definitions Number
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NATIONAL REPORT SPAIN Study on Volunteering in the European Union CONTENTS 1 GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT VOLUNTEERING IN SPAIN History and contextual background Definitions Number and profile of volunteers Number and types of organisations engaging volunteers Main voluntary activities INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK Main public bodies and other organisations involved in volunteering Policies Programmes REGULATORY FRAMEWORK General legal framework Legal framework for individual volunteers Legal framework for organisations engaging volunteers Legal framework for profit-making organisations Insurance and protection of volunteers ECONOMIC DIMENSION OF VOLUNTEERING Funding arrangements for volunteering Economic value of volunteering SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DIMENSION OF VOLUNTEERING Key benefits for volunteers, the community and direct beneficiaries Factors that motivate individuals to volunteer VOLUNTEERING IN THE CONTEXT OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING Recognition of volunteers skills and competences within the national educational and training system Education and training opportunities for volunteers EU POLICIES AND VOLUNTEERING CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR VOLUNTEERING Challenges for volunteering Opportunities for volunteering SOURCES LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABREVIATIONS... 31 1 GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT VOLUNTEERING IN SPAIN Volunteering in Spain has increased considerably in the last decade. This new phenomenon is characterised by a high fragmentation of infrastructures and organisations. While there was previously a high financial dependency on the State, creating competition among the organisations for public funding, this has reduced in the past decade and some sectors have found other forms of funding for their organisations. Due to the constitutional distribution of power between the State and the decentralised Autonomous Communities, regional authorities have the power to regulate volunteering. Indeed, a national law on volunteering was issued in order to bring together the various laws on volunteering that exist at regional level. The intention was not to limit the activities of the Autonomous Communities, but to co-ordinate them more effectively 1. This report is based on a range of interviews carried out among Spanish stakeholders and researchers, and on a review of local, regional, national reports, articles and papers on volunteering in Spain, including national plans on volunteering. A number of international reports were also reviewed, primarily those prepared by Centro di Servizio per el Volontariato del Lazio (SPES), Association of Voluntary Service Organisations (AVSO) and European Volunteer Centre (CEV). A full list of literature sources and stakeholder interviews can be found at the end of the report. 1.1 History and contextual background Volunteering is quite a late phenomenon in Spain in comparison with other European countries. This is due to the country s political history. However, it is now progressively moving forward. The first types of voluntary organisations were labour cooperatives, found in the mid 19 th century. These organisations were mainly concentrated in industrialised Catalonia. Their aim was to safeguard the interest of their members. Labour cooperatives reached their peak in Spain during the period of the Second Republic ( ). After the Civil War ( ), a more repressive phase of the Franco s dictatorship began and the number of voluntary organisations started to increase only in the last period of the dictatorship in the early 1970s. But the boom occurred with the 1978 democratic Constitution that acknowledged freedom of expression, civil society and restored political plurality through legalising political parties. The 1978 Constitution also provided a new model of territorial organisation, through the creation of the Autonomous Regions. The Constitution recognised and guaranteed the right of self-government to these regions in managing their own interests 2. However, in late 1970s, with the arrival of the democratic regime, many civic movements suffered a crisis because of the development of political parties, the confidence in the democratic institutions and the upcoming Welfare State. Participation in associations was 37% in 1973 and only 23% in Until the mid 1980s most social actors adopted an attitude against volunteering since the State was viewed as the responsible and capable actor to satisfy all social needs. After this period of negative attitude towards volunteering, the Spanish society began to realise that the State was not able to satisfy all social needs and voluntary organisations found the support of individuals and government. The Spanish voluntary sector as we know 1 Association of Voluntary Service Organisations AVSO and European Volunteer Centre CEV (2005) Voluntary Action in Spain. Facts and Figures. 2 Di Bartolomeo, A. and Iori, C. in the report of SPES - Centro di Servizio per el Volontariato del Lazio (2008) Volunteering Across Europe. Organisations, promotion, participation. 1 it today, has been shaped during this period. Volunteering is very much related to the Welfare State model due to the fact that the third sector has become a service provider in association with the State 3. In the 1990s, Spain passed through a period of renewed social enterprise that reached the levels of the 1970s. These were mainly new forms of organisation and were generally less institutionalised. However, their classification is extremely difficult as they included youth, ecologist, cultural and local forms of association 4. Also, during this decade the third sector faced a period of regulation, diversification and complexity, which characterises the sector today Definitions Volunteering is one of the main components of the Spanish third sector and is regulated by the National Law 6/1996, 15th January, on Volunteering (Ley Nacional 6/1996, del 5 de enero, sobre Voluntariado). The law defines volunteering as the group of activities of general interest 6, developed by individuals, not carried out on the grounds of a labour, public service, mercantile or any other paid relationship. It must meet the following criteria: The activity must be of an altruistic and solidarity character; It must be freely chosen and not subject to any personal duty or legal boundary; It must be carried out without economic gain and without prejudice to the right of the volunteer to be reimbursed for any expenses s/he may incur while fulfilling their tasks; It must be developed through public or private non-profit organisations in the framework of a concrete programme or project. Voluntary activity that takes place in an isolated, sporadic or individual way, outside the framework of public or private non-profit organisations, or motivated by family relations or friendship, is expressly excluded from the concept of voluntary work in Spain Number and profile of volunteers In Spain, there is a lack of up to date official data on volunteering at national level, since there are no official statistics (e.g. national surveys) on this issue. The most recent data dates from the late 1990s or 2000/01 8. Also some of the sources are contradictory or the methodology used varies. Through the interviews conducted with key stakeholders and the analysis of research carried out for private and public entities, more up-to-date data and estimates have been collected and they are presented in this section. Total number of volunteers There is no exact information on the number of volunteers in Spain. However, according to the data gathered through the interviews, the number of volunteers in 2005 reached 3 Association of Voluntary Service Organisations AVSO and European Volunteer Centre CEV (2005) Voluntary Action in Spain. Facts and Figures. 4 SPES - Centro di Servizio per el Volontariato del Lazio (2008) Volunteering Across Europe. Organisations, promotion, participation. 5 Izquieta, J., Callejo, J. & Prieto, J. (2008) El Tercer Sector y las Administraciones Públicas. Relaciones en el ámbito de la atención social en los niveles regional y local. Revista Internacional de Sociología (RIS), vol. LXVI, Nº 49, enero-abril, , The general interest activities include: social services, civil rights, education, cultural, scientific, sports, health, development cooperation, environment, economy, research, promoting volunteering, associations development, etc. 7 National Law 6/1996, 5 th January on Volunteering. 8 Association of Voluntary Service Organisations AVSO and European Volunteer Centre CEV (2005) Voluntary Action in Spain. Facts and Figures. 2 5,000,000, which represents 12% of the population. Other sources suggest that the number of volunteers stood at around 1.1 million in Trend According to the main body responsible for volunteering at national level, the Sub-direction of NGOs and Volunteering (Subdirección de ONGs y Voluntariado), voluntary activities are increasing. Also the National Plan for Volunteering asserts that the increase in participation is particularly high at local level 10. The reasons for this are: There is more social consciousness; There is more social sensibility ; There are more people who want to participate in public affairs; Increase in life expectancy and in active ageing, which means that more and more people at a relatively young age have free time to spare and a high level of skills. Gender According to estimates provided by national authorities, there is no difference in the percentage of volunteers by gender. However, the literature reviewed shows that sources are contradictory on this particular issue. While the National Plan for Volunteering asserts that volunteering in Spain is equal among men and women, with a small tendency for there to be more men 11 ; a report by García Campá states that women's participation in the voluntary sector in Spain is not equal and the social third sector in Spain is composed of more women than men 12. Also, according to the data released in the National Congress on Volunteering (2004) the general features that characterised a typical Spanish volunteer were: Female; Under 35 years old; University graduate; and Volunteering in social services 13. The sources agree that there are sectors where women are still dominant, such as the social services, which is the most common field of volunteering in Spain. The official statistical data from 2002 shows that 58% of volunteers in this sector are women. Furthermore, 75% of social service voluntary organisations have more women than men as volunteers. Age groups Younger Spanish people volunteer more than their older counterparts although volunteering among older citizens is growing. According to the 2000/2001 figures analysed by the Association of Voluntary Service Organisations AVSO and European Volunteer Centre 9 Association of Voluntary Service Organisations AVSO and European Volunteer Centre CEV (2005) Voluntary Action in Spain. Facts and Figures. 10 The Volunteering National Plan outlines actions that must be carried out to promote volunteering. It has been formulated in cooperation with organisations at national and regional level, and the organisations have been deeply involved in its development. There have been three Plans for Volunteering and a fourth one is being developed. The three-year plans were the State Plan on Volunteering ( ); the Second State Plan for Volunteering ( ) and the National Plan for Volunteering Plan Estatal del Voluntariado Diagnóstico de Situación del Voluntariado en España. 12 García Campá, S. (2005) Son machistas las ONG? Primer avance de una investigación socio-jurídica 13 Association of Voluntary Service Organisations AVSO and European Volunteer Centre CEV (2005) Voluntary Action in Spain. Facts and Figures. 3 CEV, the largest age group who participate in voluntary activities is young people aged 18 to 29, which represents 57% of the total. This group is followed by people aged between 30 and 45 years old, representing 16% of the volunteer population 14. Another source, the Spanish Youth Survey (Sondeo de la Juventud Española ), asserts that 4.9% of young people participate in voluntary activities and 22.4% would like to do so. Also, 48% of young people are or were members of a sports association. This is the main association or organisation where young people are members; followed by cultural associations or organisations and social clubs or recreation 15. However, the percentage for each age group has changed in recent years, as the information provided during the interviews has shown. The main body responsible for volunteering at national level (Sub-direction of NGOs and Volunteering - Subdirección de ONGs y Voluntariado 16 ) provided official information from 2005, which shows that people under 44 years old made up more than 60% of the total number of volunteers. The majority of this group were younger than 30. Also, estimates from this public body show that the number of volunteers aged over 65 has grown considerably in recent years. This group is characterised by pensioners who are still active and with lots of free time. Geographical spread of volunteering In terms of geographical spread, the Diagnostic of the Situation of Volunteering in Spain (Diagnóstico de Situación del Voluntariado en España) mentions that the regions of Madrid, Catalonia and Andalucía have the highest number of NGOs. Conversely, the regions of La Rioja, Navarra, Basque Country and Cantabria have a lower number of organisations in relative terms, although La Rioja, Cantabria, Baleares and Canarias have the highest numbers of NGOs per capita 17. Education levels The majority of people who participate in voluntary activities are highly skilled (20% have a degree) and according to statistical data from 2002 they volunteer on average 5 hours a week. Volunteer involvement by sectors The social services sector is the most common field for volunteering in Spain. Data from a 2005 report show that 28.7% of the total number of volunteers volunteer in this sector, which represents 4% of the Spanish population (see Figure 1). Culture and sports is the second most popular sector with 21.9%, followed by education and research with 12.3%. Other fields in which volunteers are also involved include civil rights, the environment, health, community development and international cooperation. 14 Association of Voluntary Service Organisations AVSO and European Volunteer Centre CEV (2005) Voluntary Action in Spain. Facts and Figures. 15 Plan Estatal del Voluntariado Diagnóstico de Situación del Voluntariado en España. 16 The Sub-direction of NGOs and Volunteering (Subdirección de ONGs y Voluntariado) depends on the General Direction of Families and Childhood (Dirección General de Familia e Infancia), in the General Secretary Of Social Policy (Secretaria de Política Social), Ministry of Health and Social Policy (Ministerio de Sanidad y Politica Social). 17 Plan Estatal del Voluntariado Diagnóstico de Situación del Voluntariado en España. 4 Figure 1: Volunteer involvement by sector Source: Association of Voluntary Service Organisations AVSO and European Volunteer Centre CEV (2005) According to the statistics gathered as part of the Johns Hopkins University study in 1995, 32% of the total voluntary activities in Spain take place in social services, followed by education (25%), health (12%) and culture (12%). Development and advocacy are the sectors with smaller shares in the total, with 11% and 3% respectively. Other volunteering activities represent 5% of the total. Figure 2: Sectors of activity of not-profit organisations Source: SPES - Centro di Servizio per el Volontariato del Lazio (2008), based on Johns Hopkins University, Comparative nonprofit sector project, Profile of volunteers by employment status In relation to the socio-economic situation of the volunteer population, students constitute the largest group of volunteers, representing 34% of the total number of volunteers. Students are followed by employed people, who represent 31% of the volunteer population and retired people at 12%. The unemployed is the group with the lowest representation Number and types of organisations engaging volunteers As previously mentioned, there is a lack of up-to-date official data on volunteering at national level in Spain. Also, some of the sources are contradictory or the methodology used varies. Therefore, more up-to-date data and estimates have been collected through the interviews conducted with key stakeholders and the analysis research carried out for private and public entities, 18 Association of Voluntary Service Organisations AVSO and European Volunteer Centre CEV (2005) Voluntary Action in Spain. Facts and Figures. 5 Definition of voluntary organisations in Spain The National Law 6/1996 on volunteering, article 8.1. defines voluntary organisations according to the following characteristics: an organisation that is legally constituted, a corporate entity, non-profitable and carries out activities of general interest (social services, civil rights, education, cultural, scientific, sports, health, development cooperation, environment, economy, research, promotes volunteering, associations development, etc.). Number of voluntary organisations and distribution per sector There is no official data at national level regarding the number of voluntary organisations in Spain. However, there is a registration system at national level, where some ministries register voluntary organisations relating to their main range of activities. However the organisations are not obliged to be registered or to provide information to the national administration. Also, there is no database with the number of organisations and the information collected by the registers. Consequently, gathering information about the number and/or share of voluntary organisations at national level is not an easy task. However, some authors and organisations have estimated the number of voluntary organisations in Spain, and their conclusions are as follows. The Leonardo da Vinci II Programme framework the Innovative Training MOdel for Social Enterprises Professionals/Qualifications estimates that there are 273,497 active voluntary organisations in Spain. Of these 264,851 are associations and religious organisations and 8,646 are foundations. At the same time there were 3.33 million enterprises in 2007 meaning that voluntary organisations represented 8.2% of the total number of organisations that manage economic resources 19. However, a report on the third sector in Spain, prepared by a Spanish researcher of the third sector states that there were 253,507 not-for-profit organisations in 1995 and 362,654 in The majority of the organisations are related to the culture, sport and leisure time sector (see table 1 below), followed by organisations in the fields of education and research and civil rights. It is not clear what the percentage of volunteers / employed staff is in these organisations. ` 19 SIlabo (2008) MOSE An Innovative Training MOdel for Social Enterprises Professionals/Qualifications 20 Ruiz Olabuenaga (2005) El tercer sector español y sus campos de actuación. Revista Española del Tercer Sector, ISSN , Nº. 1, Table 1: Organisations from the not-for-profit sector Sector Associa tions Foundat ions Others Total Associati ons Foundatio ns Others Total Culture, sport and leisure time Education and research Health Social services Environment Development and housing Civil rights Advocacy, Philanthropy and professional societies International activities Professional associations Friendly societies (Mutual) TOTAL Source: Ruiz Olabuenaga (2005) - El tercer sector español y sus campos de actuación. Revista Española del Tercer Sector, ISSN , Nº. 1, Trend The restoration of the democracy in the middle of the 1970s brought an increase in the number of new organisations. Nine out of ten organisations in the third sector in Spain were created after 1977; ho
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