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  cdgdghdhgdahadhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhfgdaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaFor other uses, see Clause (disambiguation).Wiki letter w.svgThis article is missing information about clauses in non-English languages. Please expand the article to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. (November 2013)In grammar, a clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition.[1] A typical clause consists of a subject and a predicate,[2] where the predicate is typically a verb phrase   a verb together with any objects and other modifiers. However the subject is sometimes not expressed; this is often the case in null-subject languages if the subject is retrievable from context, but it also occurs in certain cases in other languages such as English (as in imperative sentences and non-finite clauses).A simple sentence usually consists of a single finite clause with a finite verb that is independent. More complex sentences may contain multiple clauses. Main clauses (i.e., matrix clauses, independent clauses) are those that can stand alone as a sentence. Subordinate clauses (i.e., embedded clauses, dependent clauses) are those that would be awkward or incomplete alone.Contents [hide] 1 Two major distinctions2 Clauses according to a distinctive syntactic trait2.1 Standard SV-clauses2.2 Verb first clauses2.3 Wh-clauses2.4 Relative clauses3 Clauses according to semantic predicate-argument function3.1 Argument clauses3.2 Adjunct clauses3.3 Predicative clauses4 Representing clauses5 Clauses vs. phrases6 Non-finite clauses6.1 Gerund clauses6.2 to-infinitive clauses6.3 Small clauses7 See also8 Notes9 ReferencesTwo major distinctions[edit]A primary division for the discussion of clauses is the distinction between main clauses (i.e., matrix clauses, independent clauses) and subordinate clauses (i.e., embedded clauses, dependent clauses).[3] A main clause can stand alone, i.e. it can constitute a complete sentence by itself. A subordinate clause (i.e., embedded clause), in contrast, is reliant on the appearance of a main clause; it depends on the main clause and is therefore a dependent clause, whereas the main clause is an independent clause.A second major distinction concerns the difference between finite and non-finite clauses. A finite clause contains a structurally central finite verb, whereas the structurally central word of a non-finite clause is often a non-finite verb. Traditional grammar focuses on finite clauses, the awareness of non-finite clauses having arisen much later in connection with the modern study of syntax. The discussion here also focuses on finite clauses, although some aspects of non-finite clauses are considered further below.Clauses according to a distinctive syntactic trait[edit]  Clauses can be classified according to a distinctive trait that is a prominent characteristic of their syntactic form. The position of the finite verb is one major trait used for classification, and the appearance of a specific type of focusing word (e.g. wh-word) is another. These two criteria overlap to an extent, which means that often no single aspect of syntactic form is always decisive in determining how the clause functions. There are, however, strong tendencies.Standard SV-clauses[edit]Standard SV-clauses (subject-verb) are the norm in English. They are usually declarative (as opposed to exclamative, imperative, or interrogative); they express information in a neutral manner, e.g.The pig has not yet been fed. - Declarative clause, standard SV orderI've been hungry for two hours. - Declarative clause, standard SV order...that I've been hungry for two hours. - Declarative clause, standard SV order, but functioning as a subordinate clause due to the appearance of the subordinator thatDeclarative clauses like these are by far the most frequently occurring type of clause in any language. They can be viewed as basic, other clause types being derived from them. Standard SV-clauses can also be interrogative or exclamative, however, given the appropriate intonation contour and/or the appearance of a question word, e.g.a. The pig has not yet been fed? - Rising intonation on fed makes the clause a yes/no-question.b. The pig has not yet been fed! - Spoken forcefully, this clause is exclamative.c. You've been hungry for how long? - Appearance of interrogative word how and rising intonation make the clause a constituent questionExamples like these demonstrate that how a clause functions cannot be known based entirely on a single distinctive syntactic criterion. SV-clauses are usually declarative, but intonation and/or the appearance of a question word can render them interrogative or exclamative.Verb first clauses[edit]Verb first clauses in English usually play one of three roles: 1. They express a yes/no-question via subject-auxiliary inversion, 2. they express a condition as an embedded clause, or they express a command via imperative mood, e.g.a. He must stop laughing. - Standard declarative SV-clause (verb second order)b. Should he stop laughing? - Yes/no-question expressed by verb first orderc. Had he stopped laughing,... - Condition expressed by verb first orderd. Stop laughing! - Imperative formed with verb first ordera. They have done the job. - Standard declarative SV-clause (verb second order)b. Have they done the job? - Yes/no-question expressed by verb first orderc. Had they done the job,... - Condition expressed by verb first orderd. Do the job! - Imperative formed with verb first orderMost verb first clauses are main clauses. Verb first conditional clauses, however, must be classified as embedded clauses because they cannot stand alone.Wh-clauses[edit]Wh-clauses contain a wh-word. Wh-words often serve to help express a constituent question. They are also prevalent, though, as relative pronouns, in which case they serve to introduce a relative clause and are not part of a question. The wh-word focuses a particular constituent and most of the time, it appears in clause-initial position. The following examples illustrate standard interrogative wh-clauses. The b-sentences are direct questions (main clauses), and the c-sentences contain the corresponding indirect questions (embedded clauses):a. Sam likes the meat. - Standard declarative SV-clause  b. Who likes the meat? - Matrix interrogative wh-clause focusing on the subjectc. They asked who likes the meat. - Embedded interrogative wh-clause focusing on the subjecta. Larry sent Susan to the store. - Standard declarative SV-clauseb. Whom did Larry send to the store? - Matrix interrogative wh-clause focusing on the object, subject-auxiliary inversion presentc. We know whom Larry sent to the store. - Embedded wh-clause focusing on the object, subject-auxiliary inversion absenta. Larry sent Susan to the store. - Standard declarative SV-clauseb. Where did Larry send Susan? - Matrix interrogative wh-clause focusing on the oblique object, subject-auxiliary inversion presentc. Someone is wondering where Larry sent Susan. - Embedded wh-clause focusing on the oblique object, subject-auxiliary inversion absentOne important aspect of matrix wh-clauses is that subject-auxiliary inversion is obligatory when something other than the subject is focused. When it is the subject (or something embedded in the subject) that is focused, however, subject-auxiliary inversion does not occur.a. Who called you? - Subject focused, no subject-auxiliary inversionb. Whom did you call? - Object focused, subject-auxiliary inversion occursAnother important aspect of wh-clauses concerns the absence of subject-auxiliary inversion in embedded clauses, as illustrated in the c-examples just produced. Subject-auxiliary inversion is obligatory in matrix clauses when something other than the subject is focused, but it never occurs in embedded clauses regardless of the constituent that is focused. A systematic distinction in word order emerges across matrix wh-clauses, which can have VS order, and embedded wh-clauses, which always maintain SV order, e.g.a. Why are they doing that? - Subject-auxiliary inversion results in VS order in matrix wh-clause.b. They told us why they are doing that. - Subject-auxiliary inversion is absent in embedded wh-clause.c. *They told us why are they doing that. - Subject-auxiliary inversion is blocked in embedded wh-clause.a. Whom is he trying to avoid? - Subject-auxiliary inversion results in VS order in matrix wh-clause.b. We know whom he is trying to avoid. - Subject-auxiliary inversion is absent in embedded wh-clause.c. *We know whom is he trying to avoid. - Subject-auxiliary inversion is blocked in embedded wh-claus

Chap 00177

Jul 23, 2017
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