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New XML Schemas for Batch & Enterprise Control Emerson, Dave. Chemical Engineering109.13 (Dec 2002): 58-61. Translate Abstract This past April, the World Batch Forum (WBF) released two sets of WBF extensible-markup- language (XML) schemas. The first, Batch Markup Language, is intended to provide for the exchange of batch data and is based upon the ANSI/ISA 88 standard. The second, Business To Manufacturing Markup Language, is intended to serve as a basis for exchanging data between ente
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  New XML Schemas for Batch & Enterprise Control Emerson, Dave. Chemical Engineering109.13 (Dec 2002): 58-61. Translate Abstract This past April, the World Batch Forum (WBF) released two sets of WBF extensible-markup-language (XML) schemas. The first, Batch Markup Language, is intended to provide for the exchange of batch data and is based upon the ANSI/ISA 88 standard. The second, Business To Manufacturing Markup Language, is intended to serve as a basis for exchanging data between enterprise and control systems, and is based upon the ANSI/ISA 95 standard. This article provides background on, and an overview of, these schemas, definitions of common terminology and a brief discussion of how use of the schemas stands to improve operations. The XML working group was formed in 2000, with membership open to all WBF members and invited guests. Currently, there are over 100 members of the working group, and additional participants may join by subscribing to the working group's list server. Headnote Offered freely by the World Batch Forum, these new templates foster the exchange of data, per ANSI/ISA 88 and 95 standards This past April, the World Batch Forum (WBF; Chandler, Ariz.; www.wbf.org) released two sets of WBF extensible-markup-language (XML) schemas* (for background on XML, see CE, January 2001, pp. 111-112). The first, Batch Markup Language (BatchML), is intended to provide for the exchange of batch data and is based upon the ANSI/ISA 88 standard. The second, Business To Manufacturing Markup Language (B2MML), is intended to serve as a basis for exchanging data between enterprise and control systems, and is based upon the ANSI/ISA 95 standard. This article provides background on, and an overview of, these schemas, definitions of common terminology (box, p. 59) and a brief discussion of how use of the schemas stands to improve operations. The developers of the schemas aimed to provide a solution that would: * Be a useful and faithful implementation of the standards * Be widely used by operating companies, consultants and vendors  * Be available without requesting permission, nor having concern about, copyright infringement * Foster the exchange of data required for manufacturing The schemas should be viewed as one implementation of the ANSI/ISA 88and 95 standards. But while the ANSI/ISA-88 based XML schemas provide an alternative to other compliance methods, the ANSI/ISA 95 version may be the first implementation of its type. In either case, the XML schemas do not stipulate the use of XML for data exchange, but rather, provide support for the ANSI/ISA standards to companies that choose XML as a method for it. Without the existence of a core set of XML schemas, each company - or even work group - would have to develop its own definitions of XML elements* and types*, based upon the standards. This would have inevitably led to numerous variations, with enough differences in structure and nomenclature to make the exchange of data using XML more difficult than expected. The creation of the WBF schemas does not make XML-based data exchange easy, but it should make it easier. Even if the WBF schemas are used to derive more narrow proprietary schemas, there will be a common footing that can be used to establish a data mapping between applications. XML working group The XML working group was formed in 2000, with membership open to all WBF members and invited guests. Currently, there are over 100 members of the working group, and additional participants may join by subscribing to the working group's list server. In the past, most of the work centered around two face-to-face meetings that were attended by 14 individuals representing 10 companies (three operating companies and seven enterpriseand control-system vendors). A small group has agreed to work on maintaining the schemas if errors are found. This group does not intend to enhance the schemas, but rather perform maintenance activities as needed to support users of the schemas. If enhancements are needed, then the entire working group will be consulted. Schema architecture   As with the ANSI/ISA 88 and 95 standards, BatchML and B2MML share similarities but differ significantly in their architecture and design. In general, BatchML provides for a high degree of flexibility in its use. Where the ANSI/ISA 88 standard models may be collapsed or expanded, individual elements defined in BatchML (part of a model in ANSI/ISA 88) may be used independently as desired; or highlevel elements, such as master recipes, may be used. B2MML, on the other hand, offers less flexibility at the lower levels, with the clear intention that primary use of the schema will be for the primary ANSI/ISA 95 models, such as production schedule and performance. In both cases, the BatchML and B2MML schemas may be used to de rive new corporate-, applicationor system-specific schemas (Figure 1). While the derivation of new schemas may seem contradictory to the use of a standard, it is a pragmatic recognition that companies - both operating and vendor - have requirements beyond the core requirements of the standards. Both BatchML and B2MML schemas are implemented using XML schema recommendations of the the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The W3C schema language is identified by the file extension .xsd . This schema format provides greater flexibility and additional features over the previous W3C format, called DTD (Document Type Definitions), and over the Microsoft XML data-reduced (xdr) format. The WBF working group created the schemas under these general rules: * Title case has been used (except in the case of common abbreviations such as ID) * XML simple and complex types have been defined for all elements * The ##any * element is widely used to permit the WBF elements to be extended with the insertion of elements from other (standard or proprietary) namespaces*  Explanation of these rules is beyond the scope of this article. Further information can be found online in the BatchML and B2MML documentation, W3C XML Schema Part 0: Primer recommendation [5], and in various books concerning XML schemas. BatchML BatchML elements are defined for the following: * Master recipes * Control recipes * Recipe building blocks * Equipment elements (Figure 2) * Batch list * Enumeration sets* The internal structures for master and control recipes and for equipment elements (Figure 3) follow the models and terminology in the ANSI/ISA 88 standards and comply with the data model in Clause 4 of Part 2. The batch list element corresponds to the batch schedule defined in Part 2. However, the term, batch schedule, was not used in this implementation, to reduce confusion with the ANSI/ISA 95 production schedule - an integral part of B2MML. The enumeration sets are implemented as defined in the relational tables in Clause 5 of ANSI/ISA 88, Part 2. Since the SP88 committee is currently working on them, general and site recipes, as well as batch history are not covered in BatchML.
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